A variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide). The common red colour is caused mainly by the element chromium. Prices of rubies are primarily determined by colour. The brightest and best "red" called pigeon blood red,
Won a Newbery Medal, Sequoyah Book Award, and Lewis Carroll Shelf Award, and was runner-up for the Hans Christian Andersen Award. It is the first in L'Engle's series of books about the Murry and O'Keefe families.
At the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics won 4 gold medals: one each in the 100 m., the 200 m., the long jump, and as part of the 4x100 m. relay team. He became the first American to win four Olympic gold medals in track and field.