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19th Century Events

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114 facts:

1801
      
America's War With Tripoli Started
The US fights pirates off the Barbary coast off and on for four years
1801
      
The United Kingdom Was Formed
From the merger of the Kingdom of Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland
1803
      
The Louisiana Purchase Took Place
In which a vast section of territory in the US west of the Mississippi was purchased from France's territorial claims
1804
      
Alexander Hamilton Died
Hamilton was mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr. American statesmen and politician.
1804
      
The Austrian Empire Was Founded
1804
      
Lewis and Clark Expedition Started
Exploration of what is now the northwest US
1804
      
The Republic of Haiti Was Formed
As a result of a successful slave rebellion
1805
      
The Battle of Trafalgar Was Fought
Lord Nelson defeats the French/Spanish fleet
1806
      
The Holy Roman Empire Dissolved
As a consequence of the Treaty of Lunéville
1807
      
Beethoven's Fifth Symphony Was Written
Probably the most popular piece of classical music in the world today
1810
      
Byron Swam the Hellespont
He bested the one-mile swim in cold waters and strong current on May 3.
1810
      
The University of Berlin Was Founded
Among its students and faculty are Hegel, Marx and Bismark
1812
      
Napoleon Invaded Russia
Forced to retreat in winter, most of his 600,000 men are lost
1812
      
The War of 1812 Started
Known also as the Anglo-American War, which is only slightly more imaginative.
1813
      
Giuseppe Verdi Was Born
Oct 9 in Roncole, Italy
1814
      
Mayon Volcano Erupted
Island of Luzon in the Philippines, killing over 2000 people
1815
      
The Battle of Waterloo Was Fought
Napoleon is defeated by Wellington's army. Napoleon is forced into exile.
1819
      
Singapore Was Founded
Established by the British East India Company
1820
      
Liberia Was Founded
By the American Colonization Society for freed American slaves
1822
      
Brazil Gained Independence
From Portugal
1823
      
The US Monroe Doctrine Was Written
Warns European nations not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere
1824
      
Mexico Became a Republic
1825
      
The Argentina-Brazil War Began
Ended in 1828. Resulted in the formation of Uruguay. Also known as the Cisplatine War.
1825
      
The Erie Canal Was Opened
Connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean
1827
      
Ludwig Von Beethoven Died
March 26
1830
      
The Belgian Revolution Occured
The country of Belgium begins from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands
1830
      
France Invaded Algeria
1830
      
The Republic of Gran Colombia Was Dissolved
The countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador (and later, Panama) take its place
1833
      
The Carlist Wars in Spain Began
1833
      
The Slavery Abolition Act Was Adopted
Bans slavery throughout the British Empire
1834
      
Charles Babbage Invented the "analytical Engine"
Precursor of the computer
1834
      
The Spanish Inquisition Officially Ended
1836
      
Charles Dickens Published The Pickwick Papers
1836
      
Texans Were Beseiged at the Alamo
Entire garrison including Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie is killed
1837
      
The Reign of Queen Victoria Began
Her reign from 1837 to 1901 is referred to as the Victorian era
1838
      
Civil War in the United Provinces of Central America Began
Ended 1840. Lead to the formation of Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica and Nicaragua
1840
      
New Zealand Was Founded
By the signing of The Treaty of Waitangi, between the British Crown and the Chiefs of the local tribes.
1840
      
Upper and Lower Canada Were United
1844
      
F. B. Morse Patented the Telegraph
1845
      
The Irish Potato Famine Began
Leads to the Irish diaspora
1846
      
The Mexican-American War Began
Leads to Mexico's cession of much of present day Southwestern US
1846
      
Neptune Was Discovered
By Johann Gottfried Galle
1848
      
The Communist Manifesto Was Published
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
1848
      
Gold Was First Discovered in California
Leads to thousands of people migrating to California in the following years, thus the term 49rs.
1849
      
Edgar Allan Poe Died
American poet, author of "The Raven"
1850
      
American Express Was Founded
Company founded by Henry Wells & William Fargo
1850
      
Richard Wagner Premiered Lohengrin
1851
      
Moby Dick Was Published
Herman Melville
1851
      
The Taiping Rebellion Began
China. Ended in 1864. The bloodiest conflict of the century claiming some 20 million lives
1851
      
The Victorian Gold Rush Began
Australia
1854
      
The Battle of Balaclava Was Fought
Oct. 25. During the Crimean War and famous for the Charge of the Light Brigade, subject of the famous poem by Alfred, Lord Tennyson
1855
      
The Bessemer Process Was Invented
Enabling steel to be mass produced
1855
      
Walt Whitman Published Leaves of Grass
1856
      
Gustave Flaubert Published Madame Bovary
1856
      
London's National Portrait Gallery Opens
World's first national portrait gallery
1856
      
The World's First Oil Refinery Was Built
In Romania
1857
      
Ottawa Became the Capital of Canada
Small logging town selected by Queen Victoria
1858
      
The Great Stink of London Occured
The smell of untreated sewage almost overwhelmed people in central London, England.
1859
      
Charles Darwin Published The Origin of the Species Was Published
1859
      
John Brown Was Captured and Executed
Revolutionary abolitionist in the US; practiced armed insurrection to abolish slavery
1860
      
The First Open Championship Was Played
The oldest of the four major championships in men's golf, played at Prestwick Golf Club in Scotland
1861
      
The American Civil War Began
Between the Union and the seceding Confederate States
1861
      
French Intervention in Mexico Began
Ended in 1867
1863
      
The Emancipation Proclamation Was Issued
By President Abraham Lincoln of the US, freeing all slaves
1863
      
The International Red Cross Was Formed
Followed by the adoption of the First Geneva Convention in 1864
1865
      
Abraham Lincoln Died
Shot at Ford's Theatre by John Wilkes Booth
1865
      
The American Civil War Ended
Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox
1865
      
Lewis Carroll Published Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
1866
      
Austro-Prussian War Started
1866
      
The First Transatlantic Telegraph Cable Was Laid
1867
      
The Canadian Confederation Was Formed
1867
      
The United States Purchased Alaska from Russia
1869
      
The First Transcontinental Railroad Was Completed in the United States
1869
      
The Suez Canal Opened
Links the Mediterranean to the Red Sea
1870
      
The Franco-Prussian War Began
Ended 1871
1871
      
The Great Chicago Fire Occured
250 die
1871
      
Stanley Discovered Livingstone
Africa. "Dr Livingstone I presume."
1872
      
Jules Verne Published Around the World in 80 Days
1872
      
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Opened
In New York City, containing a collection of over two million works of art
1872
      
Yellowstone National Park Was Created
In the United States. The first US National Park.
1875
      
The First Kentucky Derby Was Held
Famous horse race
1876
      
Alexander Graham Bell Patented the Telephone
1877
      
Chief Joseph Surrendered
Nez Perce, tribe after more than three months battling with the US Army
1877
      
Tchaikovsky Wrote Swan Lake
1878
      
The Congress of Berlin Was Held
Results in extensive redivision of southeast Europe
1879
      
Anglo-Zulu War Started
In South Africa
1879
      
Thomas A. Edison Invented a Practical Electric Light
Edison didn't invent the light bulb. He refined existing designs to make the practical.
1881
      
American Red Cross Was Founded
By Clara Barton
1881
      
The First Electrical Power Plant Was Built
In Godalming, Britain.
1881
      
James Garfield Died
Garfield's assassin, Charles Guiteau is convicted and executed (1882)
1882
      
The Tuberculosis Germ Was Discovered
By Robert Koch in Berlin
1883
      
The Brooklyn Bridge Was Completed
In New York City
1883
      
The Metropolitan Opera House Was Completed
In New York City
1884
      
Sino-French War Begin
Ended 1885. Lead to the formation of French Indochina
1886
      
Geronimo Surrendered
1886
      
The Statue of Liberty Was Dedicated
In New York harbor
1887
      
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Published A Study in Scarlet
His first Sherlock Holmes story
1888
      
Slavery Was Banned in Brazil
1889
      
The Eiffel Tower Was Built
For the Paris Exhibition
1890
      
Sitting Bull Died
Lakota Sioux chief primarily known as the leader of the forces that defeated Gen. George Custer.
1890
      
Vincent Van Gogh Died
Self inflicted gunshot, July 29
1890
      
The Wounded Knee Massacre Occured
In South Dakota, marks the end of the American Indian Wars
1892
      
The Diesel Engine Was Patented
1893
      
New Zealand Allowed Women the Vote
The first country in the world to give women the vote
1893
      
Radio Was First Publicly Demonstrated
Nicola Tesla
1894
      
The Sino-Japanese War Began
Ends in 1895 with China's defeat
1895
      
Auguste and Louis Lumière Showed Motion Pictures
At a café in Paris
1895
      
Louis Pasteur Died
From complications of a series of strokes, renowned inventor of pasteurization
1895
      
X-rays Discovered by German Physicist Wilhelm Roentgen
1896
      
The Modern Olympic Games Were Started
The first modern Olympiad took place in Athens
1896
      
The Nobel Prizes Were Established
Alfred Nobel's will established prizes for peace, science and literature
1896
      
The US Supreme Court Issued "Plessy V. Ferguson" Decision
Establishes "separate but equal" doctrine
1898
      
The Boxer Rebellion Began
China. Ended 1900.
1899
      
The Boer War Began
Pits the British against the Boers, descendants of Dutch settlers in South Africa


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