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Battles and Sieges

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140 facts:

9
   saw the   
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Victory of Arminius over the Roman Legions under Varus
31 BC
   saw the   
Battle of Actium
Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra in a sea battle
52 BC
   saw the   
Siege of Alesia
Julius Caesar defeats the Gallic army of Vercingetorix
70
   saw the   
Siege Of Jerusalem
146 BC
   saw the   
Sacking of Corinth
Romans burn Corinth consolidating their Mediterranean power
202 BC
   saw the   
Battle of Zama
Final battle of the Second Punic War; Scipio defeats Hannibal
207 BC
   saw the   
Battle of Metaurus
Rome and Carthage
260 BC
   saw the   
Battle of Changping
450,000 Zhao soldiers encircled and massacred
279 BC
   saw the   
Battle of Asculum
Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, lost most of his army in a victorious battle against the Romans, thus originating the term Pyrrhic victory
331 BC
   saw the   
Battle of Gaugamela
Also called Battle of Arbela; Alexander defeats the Persians
333 BC
   saw the   
Battle of Issus
Alexander defeats Darius III
338 BC
   saw the   
Battle of Chaeronea
Alexander defeats the Greeks
390 BC
   saw the   
Sack of Rome
By the Gauls
410
   saw the   
Sack of Rome
Rome was attacked by the Visigoths led by Alaric I
413 BC
   saw the   
Battle of Syracuse
Defeat of the Athenians at Syracuse
451
   saw the   
Battle of Chalons
Victory of Roman general Aëtius with his Gothic allies over the Huns
479 BC
   saw the   
Battle of Plataea
Persians are expelled from Greece, led by Spartan general Pausanias
480 BC
   saw the   
Battle of Salamis
Naval battle between an alliance of Greek city-states and the Achaemenid Empire of Persia
524
   saw the   
Battle of Vézeronce
Franks defeat King Sigismund in the conquest of the Burgundian kingdom
577
   saw the   
Battle of Deorham
Saxons defeat Britons
656
   saw the   
Battle of Basorah
Aka Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces allied to Ali ibn Abi Talib (Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Rightly Guided Caliph and Commander of the Faithful) and forces allied to Aisha (widow of Muhammad, and called Mother of the Belivers(Arabic: Umm-al-Mu'mineen) who wanted justice on the perpetrators of the assassination of the previous caliph Uthman.
656
   saw the   
Battle of Basra
Aka Battle of Basorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces allied to Ali ibn Abi Talib (Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Rightly Guided Caliph and Commander of the Faithful) and forces allied to Aisha (widow of Muhammad, and called Mother of the Belivers(Arabic: Umm-al-Mu'mineen) who wanted justice on the perpetrators of the assassination of the previous caliph Uthman.
680
   saw the   
Battle of Karbala
Muhammad's grandson, Husain bin Ali, his family and followers are massacred
687
   saw the   
Battle of Tertry
Makes Pepin the effective ruler of the Franks
718
   saw the   
Siege of Constantinople
Arabs fail a second time to take the city
732
   saw the   
Battle of Tours
Moslem defeat at Tours under leadership of Charles Martel
878
   saw the   
Battle of Edington
Alfred the Great, king of Wessex defeats the Danes
885
   saw the   
Siege of Paris
Unsuccessful Viking assault
955
   saw the   
Battle of Lechfield
Saxon King Otto I defeats the Magyars
1000
   saw the   
Battle of Svold
Olag Trygvasson, king of Norway is defeated by Sweyn Forkbeard, king of Denmark
1066
   saw the   
Battle of Hastings
A famous historical date engraved into the minds of English School Children. The Battle is depicted in the famous Bayeux tapestry.
1071
   saw the   
Battle of Manzikert
The Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantine emperor Romanus IV
1097
   saw the   
Battle of Dorylaeum
Crusader victory during the First Crusade against the Seljuk Turks
1176
   saw the   
Battle of Legnano
Northern Italy emperor Frederick Barbarosa defeated by Lombard League
1184
   saw the   
Battle of Ichinotani
One of the most famous battles of the Genpei Wars
1185
   saw the   
Battle of Dan-no-Ura
Japan's Gempei Wars, 1300 ships involved
1187
   saw the   
Battle of Hattin
Turning point in the Crusades as Crusaders suffer a crushing defeat
1191
   saw the   
Battle of Arsouf
Preliminary battle in Richard the Lion Heart's failed plans to capture Jerusalem
1241
   saw the   
Battle of Sajo River
Main battle between the Mongol Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary during the Mongol invasion of Europe
1264
   saw the   
Battle of Lewes
14th May 1264. Lewes, England. Second Barons' War. Combatants: Barons ¦ Royalists. Outcome: Royalist defeat. The Battle of Lewes was one of two main battles of the conflict known as the Second Barons' War. It took place at Lewes in Sussex, on 14 May 1264. It marked the high point of the career of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, and made him the "uncrowned King of England".
1298
   saw the   
Battle of Falkirk
22nd July 1298. a major engagement in the First War of Scottish Independence. An English army commanded by King Edward I of England defeated the Scots under William Wallace. Despite his success King Edward was unable to complete the subjugation of Scotland because his army had been weakened by the campaign.
1314
   saw the   
Battle of Bannockburn
1315
   saw the   
Battle of Morgarten
Swiss Confederation forces ambush and defeat Austrian soldiers of the Holy Roman Empire
1339
   saw the   
Battle of Laupen
Fought between the city of Berne and Swiss confederates against the Habsburg and Burgundian feudal lords
1346
   saw the   
Battle of Crecy
Edward III of England defeats French King Philip VI
1386
   saw the   
Battle of Sempach
Fought on July 9 between Leopold III, Duke of Austria and the Old Swiss Confederacy
1415
   saw the   
Battle of Agincourt
25th October 1415. Agincourt, France. War: Hundred Years' War. Combatants: England ¦ France. Outcome: English Victory
1429
   saw the   
Siege of Orleans
1453
   saw the   
Siege of Constantinople
160,000 Ottoman warriors overcome a much smaller Christian force and take the city
1503
   saw the   
Battle of Cerignola
The Italian wars; Spanish defeat the French army
1509
   saw the   
Battle of Diu
Feb 2,3; sea battle off the coast of Diu, India between Portugal and the Ottoman Empire
1513
   saw the   
Battle of Flodden Field
Fought in the county of Northumberland in northern England on 9 September 1513, between an invading Scots army under King James IV and an English army commanded by Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey. It ended in a victory for the English and a bloody defeat for the Scots and was the largest battle (in terms of numbers) fought between the two nations.
1514
   saw the   
Battle of Orsha
Sept 8; Lithuania and Poland versus the Grand Duchy of Moscow
1525
   saw the   
Battle of Pavia
Northern Italy; French king Francis I is taken prisoner by Habsburg emperor Charles V
1526
   saw the   
Battle of Mohacs
Ottoman sultan Suleiman I defeats Hungarians
1529
   saw the   
Siege of Vienna
Sets limit to Ottoman expansion into Europe
1545
   saw the   
Battle of the Solent
Naval encounter between France and England; English warship Mary Rose sinks of Portsmouth
1569
   saw the   
Battle of Moncontour
Between French Catholics and Huguenots
1571
   saw the   
Battle of Lepanto
Christian Holy League defeats Ottomans in last major battle fought by oared galleys
1578
   saw the   
Battle of Alcazarquivir
King Sebastian of Portugal is killed in an invasion of North Africa
1588
   saw the   
Battle of Gravelines
Defeat of the Spanish armada
1620
   saw the   
Battle of White Mountain
Ferdinand's Catholic imperial forces crush Bohemian rebels outside Prague
1627
   saw the   
Siege of La Rochelle
1627 - 1628. Forced to eat rats and dogs to survive, less than one-quarter of the human population survived and even less of the rats and dogs.
1651
   saw the   
Battle of Worcester
Defeat for the Royalists ends the English Civil War.
1666
   saw the   
St James' Day Battle
Anglo-Dutch Wars; one of the longest naval battles in history with over 2000 English seamen killed
1704
   saw the   
Battle of Blenheim
Aka the Second Battle of Höchstädt), fought on 13 August 1704, was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. referred to in some countries as the Second Battle of Höchstädt, fought on 13 August 1704, was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. Louis XIV of France sought to knock Emperor Leopold out of the war by seizing Vienna, the Habsburg capital, and gain a favourable peace settlement. out of the war by seizing Vienna, the Habsburg capital, and gain a favourable peace settlement.
1709
   saw the   
Battle of Malplaquet
Major battle in the War of the Spanish Succession; 40,000 killed
1709
   saw the   
Battle of Pultowa
Decisive triumph of Russia over Sweden at Pultowa
1746
   saw the   
Battle of Culloden
1759
   saw the   
Battle of Kunersdorf
Prussians defeated by combined army of Russians and Austrians; Seven Year's War
1759
   saw the   
Battle of Minden
Anglo-German army defeat French army; Seven Year's War
1759
   saw the   
Battle of the Plains of Abraham
Sept 13, culminating battle between the French and the English for control of North America
1759
   saw the   
Battle of Quebec
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec, was a pivotal battle in the Seven Years' War
1775
   saw the   
Battle of Bunker Hill
17th June 1775. Charlestown, Massachusetts. American War of Independence. Combatants: Great Britain ¦ Province of Massachusetts. Outcome: British Victory. Because most of the fighting did not occur on Bunker Hill itself, the conflict is sometimes more accurately (though less frequently) called the Battle of Breed's Hill.
1777
   saw the   
Battle of Saratoga
American victory over British general John Burgoyne
1780
   saw the   
Battle of Camden
Major victory for the British in the Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War
1780
   saw the   
Battle of Pollilur
Waged between the Kingdom of Mysore in India and the British East India Company which took heavy casualties
1781
   saw the   
Siege of Yorktown
Last major land battle in North America of the American War of Independence; a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British lord and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.
1782
   saw the   
Battle of the Saints
English naval victory over the French fleet in the American Revolutionary War
1789
   saw the   
Storming of the Bastille
July 14, French mob storms this symbol of repression, thereby beginning the French Revolution
1792
   saw the   
Battle of Valmy
Forces of the French army stop a Prussian army advance on Paris
1793
   saw the   
Siege of Toulon
Republican victory over Royalist rebellion in Southern French city; young Napoleon rise
1798
   saw the   
Battle of the Pyramids
Aka, Battle of Embabeh between Napoleon's army and the Mamluk forces in Egypt
1800
   saw the   
Battle of Marengo
Napoleon's army against Austrian forces; subject of painting by Louis-François LeJeune
1805
   saw the   
Battle of Austerlitz
Also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon Bonaparte's greatest victories, effectively destroying the Third Coalition against the French Empire. On December 2, 1805 (November 20, Old Style), a French army, commanded by Emperor Napoleon I, decisively defeated a Russo-Austrian army, commanded by Tsar Alexander I, after nearly nine hours of difficult fighting.
1805
   saw the   
Battle of Trafalgar
Sea battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navy
1807
   saw the   
Battle of Friedland
Decisive victory by Napoleon over Russians
1811
   saw the   
Battle of Barrosa
Peninsular War; a single British division defeated two French divisions
1812
   saw the   
Battle of Salamanca
Anglo-Hispano-Portuguese army defeats French forces in the Peninsular War
1813
   saw the   
Battle of Chateauguay
Oct 26; decisive victory by French Canadian militia and Mohawk warriors over American forces trying to capture Montreal
1813
   saw the   
Battle of Dresden
Fought on 26-27 August 1813 around Dresden, Germany, resulting in a French victory under Napoleon I against forces of the Sixth Coalition of Austrians, Russians and Prussians under Field Marshal Schwartzenberg. However, Napoleon's victory was not as complete as it could have been. Substantial pursuit was not undertaken after the battle, and the flanking corps was surrounded and forced to surrender a few days later at the Battle of Kulm.
1815
   saw the   
Battle of New Orleans
Gen. Andrew Jackson defeated the British Army
1815
   saw the   
Battle of Waterloo
June 18, Napoleon Boneparte's last battle
1817
   saw the   
Battle of Chacabuco
Chilean War of Independence; defeat for the Spanish-controlled government
1836
   saw the   
Battle of San Jacinto
Texan army defeats Mexican forces of General Santa Anna
1836
   saw the   
Siege on the Alamo
March 6, has come to symbolize heroic struggle against impossible odds
1838
   saw the   
Battle of Blood River
Boers defeat Zulus; so called owing to the Ncome River turning red from blood
1839
   saw the   
Battle of Yungay
Chilean troops decisively defeat the Peru-Bolivian Confederation
1854
   saw the   
Battle of Balaclava
Crimean War; scene of the famous Charge of the Light Brigade
1854
   saw the   
Siege of Sevastopol
Major siege during the Crimean War; subject of a Leo Tolstoy early book
1861
   saw the   
Siege on Fort Sumpter
April 12-13, opening shots of the American Civil War
1862
   saw the   
Battle of Pueblo
May 5, Cinco de Mayo; victory of Mexican forces over occupying French army
1863
   saw the   
Battle of Gettysburg
July 1-3, American Civil War; total forces, 158,300; estimated casualties, 51,000; high tide for the Confederacy
1876
   saw the   
Battle of the Little Bighorn
June 25-26, aka The Battle of the Greasy Grass and Custer's Last Stand
1876
   saw the   
Battle of the Rosebud
Lakota Sioux victory over the US Army; called by the Cheyenne the Battle Where the Girl Saved Her Brother
1879
   saw the   
Battle of Isandlwana
Opening major encounter in the Anglo-Zulu War; British humiliated
1898
   saw the   
Battle of Manila Bay
Spanish-American War; US Asiatic Squadron destroys the Spanish fleet
1900
   saw the   
Battle of Ladysmith
One of the early engagements of the Second Boer War. A large British force which had concentrated at the garrison town of Ladysmith launched a sortie on 30 October, 1899, against Boer armies which were slowly surrounding the town. The result was a disaster for the British.
1905
   saw the   
Battle of Mukden
Last major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War
1914
   saw the   
Battle of the Ardennes
Aug 21-23, one of the battles of the frontiers in the first month of WWI. The Battle of the Ardennes was one of the opening battles of World War I. It took place from August 21-23, 1914, part of the Battle of the Frontiers.
1914
   saw the   
Battle of Basra
Took place in the city of Basra (modern-day Iraq) between British and Ottoman troops on December 10, 1914. The battle resulted in the British capture of Basra.
1914
   saw the   
Battle of Flanders
(First Battle of Ypres) October - November 1914. Location: Ypres, Belgium WWI. Combatants: Germany ¦ United Kingdom, France. Outcome: German defeat. the last major battle of the first year of World War I (1914); actually a series of battles, starting on 19 October and ending, according to the various histories, on 13 November (French), 22 November (British) or 30 November (German)
1914
   saw the   
First Battle of Ypres
AKa Battle of Flanders
1915
   saw the   
Battle of Gallipoli
19th February 1915 -9th January 1916. Gallipoli Peninsula. WWI. Combatants: Ottoman Empire ¦ United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, India, France. Outcome: Ottoman victory
1916
   saw the   
Battle of the Somme
An offensive by the British and French armies against the German army
1916
   saw the   
Battle of Verdun
Became a symbol of French determination and sacrifice in a mult-week battle against the Germans
1917
   saw the   
Battle of Cambrai
British launch the first massed tank attack
1917
   saw the   
Battle of Passchendaele
(Third Battle of Ypres) 31st July - 10th November 1917. Ypres, Belgium. WWI. Combatants: Germany ¦ United Kingdom, France, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa. Outcome: Stalemate
1918
   saw the   
Battle of Cantigny
First American offensive of World War I
1940
   saw the   
Battle of Britain
July 10-Oct 31, battle for air superiority between the German Luftwaffe and the British Royal Air Force
1940
   saw the   
Battle of Dunkirk
The defence and evacuation of British and Allied forces in Europe from May 26 to June 4, 1940. A large force of soldiers were cut off in northern France by a German armoured advance to the English Channel coast at Calais. 338,226 Allied troops caught in the pocket were successfully evacuated by sea to England.
1941
   saw the   
Siege of Leningrad
Unsuccessful operation by German forces to capture Leningrad (Saint Petersburg)
1941
   saw the   
Siege of Sevastopol
From 30 Oct to 4 July, 1942, German struggle for control of Soviet Black Sea naval base
1942
   saw the   
Battle of El Alamein
1942
   saw the   
Battle of Guadalcanal
7th August 1942 - 9th February 1943. Guadalcanal, Pacific. WWII. Combatants: USA, Australia, New Zealand ¦ Japan. Outcome: Japanese Defeat
1942
   saw the   
Battle of Midway
June 4, pivotal naval battle in the Pacific in WWII between the US and Japan
1942
   saw the   
Battle of Stalingrad
Major battle of WWII in which Germany fought the Soviet Union for control of Stalingrad
1944
   saw the   
Battle of Arnhem
In World War II, during Operation Market Garden (September 1944), the British 1st Airborne Division and the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade were given the task of securing the bridge at Arnhem. These events were dramatized in the 1977 movie A Bridge Too Far.
1944
   saw the   
Battle of the Bulge
1944 - 1945. Dec 16-Jan 25 ,more than one million men; 181,000 casualties; WWII
1944
   saw the   
Battle of the Hedge Rows
June, also known as the Battle of Normandy in WWII
1944
   saw the   
Battle of Leyte Gulf
Largest naval battle of WWII; Japanese aircraft carry out organized kamikaze attacks
1945
   saw the   
Battle of Berlin
The final major offensive of the European Theatre of World War II and was designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union. 16th April 1945 - 2nd May 1945. Berlin, Germany. WWII. Combatants: Germany ¦ Soviet Union, Communist Poland. Outcome: German defeat.
1945
   saw the   
Battle of Iwo Jima
Feb 19-March 16, over 20,000 Japanese soldiers died; the last soldier surrendered in 1951
1945
   saw the   
Battle of Manila
Japanese military occupation of the city ends in the worst urban fighting of WWII's Pacific theatre
1950
   saw the   
Battle of Chosin Reservoir
Brutal 17-day battle in freezing weather during the Korean War
1951
   saw the   
Battle of Heartbreak Ridge
Month-long major engagement in the Korean War
1953
   saw the   
Battle of Pork Chop Hill
Controversial battle of the Korean War; subject of a movie by the same name
1968
   saw the   
Battle of Hué
One of the bloodiest and longest battles of the Vietnam War
1968
   saw the   
Battle of Khe Sanh
21 January to 8 April, series of attacks on hilltop US Marine base by North Vietnamese and Chinese forces
1982
   saw the   
Battle of Goose Green
27th-28th May 1982. Goose Green, Falkland Islands. Falklands War. Combatants: Britain ¦ Argentina. Outcome: British Victory


Facts contributed by:


JMK








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