Endangered Mammals - Latin Names
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The African Bush Elephant (Loxodonta africana) is the larger of the two species of African elephants. Both it and the African Forest Elephant were previously classified as a single species, known simply as the African Elephant. It is also known as the Bush Elephant or Savanna Elephant.
Only a handful of aye-ayes survive in the wild. Found only at a few localities along the eastern half of Madagascar, off eastern Africa. t has suffered from extensive loss of its natural habitat of humid tropical forest, which now exists only in fragmented remnants, including 16 protected areas. The aye-aye is also killed by local people, who believe that it is an evil omen.
Approx. 950 (2003). Heavy persecution by hunters and competition with domestic animals for water and pasture were the principal causes of decline up to the 1960's. Hunting has continued to have a major impact up to the present. Additional threats include settling of oases by pastoralists, prospecting for and extraction of oil and gold, and hybridization with domestic camel stock.
An ox found in Southeast Asia
Until recently called the Pygmy Chimpanzee
Approx 200 (1997). Currently is only found in China in a narrow area in the upper reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) watershed in Sichuan Province. It has declined significantly since the 1950's because of overhunting. This continues to be its major threat, as well as some habitat loss.
There are two sub-species of Eastern gorillas - Gorilla beringei beringei - Mountain Gorilla and Gorilla beringei graueri - Eastern Lowland Gorilla. The Eastern Lowland Gorilla is the most populous, at about 16,000 individuals. The Mountain Gorilla has only about 700 individuals.
Approx 450 (2004). Also known as the Abyssinian Wolf. Habitat loss is exacerbated by overgrazing of highland pastures by domestic livestock, and in some areas habitat is threatened by proposed development of commercial sheep farms and roads. Hybridization of the Ethiopian wolf with domestic dogs could threaten the genetic integrity of the Ethiopian wolf population, but hybridization is currently confined to one valley in western Bale.
Second largest animal on earth
A small monkey native to the coastal forests of Brazil
110 individuals (2001). Also known as the Assam rabbit or Bristly rabbit. The main reasons for its decline include habitat loss, mainly for cultivation, forestry, grazing and the burning of thatch; human settlement; hunting for food and to protect crops; and predation by dogs. In addition, human-induced changes in seasonal flooding have favoured the later stages of vegetation succession which it does not prefer.
Known for its complex songs
Approx 120 (2006). The Iberian lynx was formerly found throughout Spain and Portugal. Their decline accelerated after the 1950's due to the spread of myxomatosis, which decimated populations of the European rabbit, the lynx's main prey. Additional factors in the lynx's decline include habitat loss, illegal hunting, accidental killing by snares and poison baits set for other animals, and roadkill.
Approx. 850 (2001). Endemic to the rivers of the lower Indus River basin in Pakistan. The main reason for their decline was the construction of dams and barrages, starting in the 1930's, that have fragmented the population and reduced the amount of available habitat. Another severe threat to their survival is probably the increasing withdrawal of water. Dolphins no longer occur in the lower reaches of the Indus because upstream water extraction leaves downstream channels virtually dry for several months each year.
Less than 60 known in the wild (2005). There are only two known populations, in the Udjung Kulon National Park in Java (Indonesia) & the Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam. There are two major reasons for its decline. The first one is poaching of the rhino for its horn which is valued highly for use in Oriental medicine and in Yemen horns are carved to make dagger handles. The second reason is habitat loss due to clearing of lowland forest. The most critical threat in Vietnam is the conversion of forestland into agricultural land.
Less than 250 individuals (2003). The major reason for the kouprey's decline has been uncontrolled hunting by local inhabitants and by the military. Other factors include disease transmitted from domestic stock and loss of habitat due to illegal logging and slash-and-burn agriculture.
There are only about 600 - 700 mountain gorillas left in the world. About 300 of those gorillas live in Uganda's Bwindi National Park. Mountain gorillas are a sub-species of the Eastern Gorilla.
Approx 350 (2004). The world's rarest, large whale. Overfishing by the whaling industry caused the North Atlantic right whale's decline. Its most serious threats are collisions with ships and entanglement in fishing gear. More than half of the living right whales in the Western North Atlantic have experienced at least one ship-strike or net entanglement.
113 left (2003). This wombat is found in New South Wales & Queensland. Has declined because of drought; direct persecution; habitat loss; & competition with introduced rabbits, cattle and sheep. The greatest current threat to its survival is the fact that it exists in only one small population, leaving it vulnerable to a local catastrophe such as a disease outbreak or a prolonged drought.
Subspecies of leopard found in western Asia
Less than 150 (2004). The species was extinct in the wild by 1980. Red wolves raised in the captive breeding program were re-introduced into eastern North Carolina in 1987. Presently, they exist only in this re-introduced population. Reasons for the red wolf's decline included hunting, poisoning and trapping, habitat disruption, and competition and hybridization with the coyote. Hybridization with coyotes is the primary threat to the current wild species' existence.
Conversion of habitat for agriculture has been the major threat. Upwards of 60% of the original riparian vegetation has been converted to cultivation. Other threats include: habitat loss due to firewood collecting & heavy grazing pressure by sheep, traditional hunting with dogs, predation from uncontrolled dogs roaming in the veldt, mortality due to traps and construction of dams which dry up the rivers.
50 - 100 individuals (2004). The Seychelles sheath-tailed bat occurs in the central granitic islands of the Seychelles Islands north of Madagascar. It probably was abundant throughout the Seychelles in the past, but it has declined drastically and is now extinct on most islands. The reasons for its decline are unknown. It has been suggested that the barn owl, Tyto alba, introduced in 1949, may be responsible.
Approx 300 (2005). Due to overhunting and habitat loss, it has been reduced to small, scattered populations. In recent times its largest concentrations have been in Sumatra (Indonesia) & the Malay Peninsula (Malaysia). Also on Borneo in Sabah (Malaysia) & in small numbers in Myanmar and Thailand.
Approx 30 - 200 left (2004). It is endemic to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines. The tamaraw has declined mainly because of hunting, especially after the introduction of modern firearms after WWII and the Vietnam war; and habitat loss, due to settlement, logging and ranching, after malaria was brought under control around 1900. Disease (rinderpest) caught from domestic cattle introduced to the island in the 1930's has also had a serious impact.
29 known individuals (2005). It is endemic to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. By 1990 it had been reduced to 1/3 of its former range in the mountains of Vancouver Island, due in part to habitat disruption caused by logging.
Also known as the Baiji. Has been declared functionally extinct although a few individual remain.
Less than 250 (2004). Also called Hendee's Woolly Monkey. Lives in the montane cloud forests of the Peruvian Andes. The inaccessibility of its habitat protected the species until the 1950's. However, the construction of new roads; habitat loss and fragmentation from agriculture, logging & cattle ranching; & subsistence hunting; together with the monkey's naturally low population densities, slow maturation, low reproductive rate, & a restricted geographic distribution have led to this species' current critically endangered status.
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