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The wider meaning of gemstone is used here and includes any mineral or organic material (e.g. amber) used for jewellery. Only the most common colours of gemstones have been included.

83 facts:

Alexandrite
   is coloured   
Green
Can also be yellow. A form of chrysoberyl. Ordinary chrysoberyl is a yellowish-green. When the mineral exhibits good pale green to yellow colour and is transparent, then it is used as a gemstone.
Alexandrite
   is coloured   
Yellow
Can also be green. A form of chrysoberyl. Ordinary chrysoberyl is a yellowish-green. When the mineral exhibits good pale green to yellow colour and is transparent, then it
Amber
   is coloured   
Brown
A brownish-yellow (amber) colour. Can also be reddish. Amber is fossil tree resin. Good quality amber is used for jewellery. Although not mineralised, it is often classified as a gemstone.
Amber
   is coloured   
Brownish-yellow
A brownish-yellow (amber) colour. Can also be reddish. Amber is fossil tree resin. Good quality amber is used for jewellery. Although not mineralised, it is often classified as a gemstone.
Amber
   is coloured   
Red
A brownish-yellow (amber) colour. Can also be reddish. Amber is fossil tree resin. Good quality amber is used for jewellery. Although not mineralised, it is often classified as a gemstone.
Amber
   is coloured   
Yellow
A brownish-yellow (amber) colour. Can also be reddish. Amber is fossil tree resin. Good quality amber is used for jewellery. Although not mineralised, it is often classified as a gemstone.
Amethyst
   is coloured   
Purple
A violet variety of quartz often used as an ornamental stone in jewellery
Ametrine
   is coloured   
Purple and Yellow
Known as trystine or its trade namebolivianite, it's a variety of quartz. It is a mixture of amethyst and citrine. Ametrine is most typically faceted in a rectangular shape with a 50/50 pairing of amethyst and citrine.
Aquamarine
   is coloured   
Blue
Aquamarine is pale greenish blue or bluish green variety of beryl. Aquamarine is a pastel gemstone, and while colour can be quite intense in larger gemstones, smaller aquamarines are often less vivid.
Aquamarine
   is coloured   
Green
Aquamarine is pale greenish blue or bluish green variety of beryl. Aquamarine is a pastel gemstone, and while colour can be quite intense in larger gemstones, smaller aquamarines are often less vivid.
Aventurine
   is coloured   
Green
The most common colour of aventurine is green, but it may also be orange, brown, yellow, blue, or grey. A form of quartz and plagioclase feldspar, characterised by its translucency and the presence of mineral inclusions that give a shimmering effect called aventurescence. Most material is carved into beads and figurines with only the finer examples made into jewellery.
Benitoite
   is coloured   
Blue
A rare silicate mineral, found in hydrothermally altered serpentinite. It fluoresces under short wave ultraviolet light. Benitoite's hardness makes it suitable for use as a gemstone, though its rarity has limited this use.
Bloodstone
   is coloured   
Green With Red Spots
A form of chalcedony quartz. According to the legend bloodstone was first formed when drops of Christ's blood fell and stained some jasper at the foot of the cross. Also known as Also Heliotrope (from Greek helios - Sun, and trepein - to turn) because of the manner it reflects light.
Blue John
   is coloured   
Purple and White
Also purple and yellow. Blue John is a rare, semiprecious mineral, it is a blue/purple and white/yellow banded variety of fluorite. Seldom found in jewellery because of its rarity. From the French Bleu Jaune (blue yellow).
Blue John
   is coloured   
Purple and Yellow
Also purple and white. From the French Bleu Jaune (blue yellow). Blue John is a rare, semiprecious mineral, it is a blue/purple and white/yellow banded variety of fluorite. Seldom found in jewellery because of its rarity.
Blue Lace Agate
   is coloured   
Blue and White Bands
A form of chalcedony - microcrystaline quartz. Used in a variety of types of jewellery.
Carnelian
   is coloured   
Orange
A red, orange or reddish-brown variant of chalcedony. Carnelian was used widely during Roman times 2,000 years before the present era to make signet or seal rings for imprinting a seal with wax on correspondence or documents because hot wax does not stick to Carnelian.
Carnelian
   is coloured   
Red
A red, orange or reddish-brown variant of chalcedony. Carnelian was used widely during Roman times 2,000 years before the present era to make signet or seal rings for imprinting a seal with wax on correspondence or documents because hot wax does not stick to Carnelian.
Carnelian Onyx
   is coloured   
White and Red Bands
A white and red form of onyx, a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. Often made into beads or shaped and polished as opposed to faceted.
Chrome Diopside
   is coloured   
Green
Gemstone quality diopside is found in two forms: black star diopside andchrome diopside (chromium giving it a rich green colour).
Chrysocolla
   is coloured   
Blue
Can also be green or blue-green. Commonly occurs only as porous crusts unsuitable for gem use, but high quality, gem grade chrysocolla can be translucent and is highly prized.
Chrysocolla
   is coloured   
Green
Can also be blue or blue-green. Commonly occurs only as porous crusts unsuitable for gem use, but high quality, gem grade chrysocolla can be translucent and is highly prized.
Chrysoprase
   is coloured   
Green
A gemstone variety of chalcedony (microcrystaline quartz) that contains small quantities of nickel. Its colour is normally apple-green, but varies to deep green. Also known as chrysophrase.
Citrine
   is coloured   
Yellow
Citrine is a variety of quartz. Most commonly yellow it can be orange or brown. Citrine has ferric impurities, and is rarely found naturally. Most citrine used in jewellery is in fact artificially heated amethyst or smoky quartz.
Danburite
   is coloured   
Clear
A crystalline mineral (Calcium boron silicate) similar to topaz. It is usually colourless, like quartz, but can be also either pale yellow, yellowish-brown, or pink. It has a relatively new history compared to other gemstones, having only been discovered in 1839. It has become popular as a substitute for stones like topaz. It is a relatively hard crystal and can be polished to produce a brilliant finish.
Demantoid
   is coloured   
Green
Demantoid is the green gemstone variety of the mineral andradite, a member of the garnet group of minerals. Andradite is a calcium- and iron-rich garnet. It is the most expensive and rare of garnet gemstones
Diamond
   is coloured   
Clear
Most commonly clear but can be brown, yellow, green, blue, purple, pink, red, grey or black depending on the impurities present. Diamond is the hardest natural substance. The hardness, brilliance, and sparkle of diamonds make them prized for jewellery.
Emerald
   is coloured   
Green
A green variety of the mineral beryl coloured by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Almost all emeralds contain flaws, cracks, and inclusions, which can negatively affect the clarity. Most emeralds are oiled as part of the post lapidary process, in order to improve their clarity.
Fire Opal
   is coloured   
Orange
Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colours yellow, orange, orange-yellow or red and they do not show any play-of-colour. Amorthous silica is a solidified jelly so it has no crystal structure.
Fire Opal
   is coloured   
Red
Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colours yellow, orange, orange-yellow or red and they do not show any play-of-colour. Amorthous silica is a solidified jelly so it has no crystal structure.
Fire Opal
   is coloured   
Yellow
Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colours yellow, orange, orange-yellow or red and they do not show any play-of-colour. Amorthous silica is a solidified jelly so it has no crystal structure.
Garnet
   is coloured   
Red
Garnets are most often seen in red, but are available in a wide variety of colours spanning the entire spectrum. Pure crystals of garnet are used as gemstones.
Goshenite
   is coloured   
Clear
Pure beryl (goshenite) is colourless, but it is frequently tinted by impurities; possible colours are green, blue, yellow, red, and white. It has been used as a gemstone since prehistoric times. The earliest crystal balls were made from goshenite.
Heliodor
   is coloured   
Yellow
Heliodor is the yellow or yellow-green variety of beryl. A beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate. Varieties of beryl have been considered gemstones since prehistoric times.
Heliodor
   is coloured   
Yellow-green
Heliodor is the yellow or yellow-green variety of beryl. A beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate. Varieties of beryl have been considered gemstones since prehistoric times.
Hiddenite
   is coloured   
Green
A pale to emerald green variety of spodumene that is sometimes used as a gemstone. It is an attractive gem mineral, but is rare and mostly only bought by collectors.
Iolite
   is coloured   
Blue
Cordierite (mineralogy) or iolite (gemology) is a magnesium iron aluminium cyclosilicate. It is a transparent, violet-blue, light blue, blue, rich blue-violet stone, less commonly it can be yellow.
Jacinth
   is coloured   
Orange
Jacinth (also known as hyacinth) is a red or orange transparent variety of zircon used as a gemstone.
Jacinth
   is coloured   
Red
Jacinth (also known as hyacinth) is a red or orange transparent variety of zircon used as a gemstone.
Jade
   is coloured   
Green
The term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. Nephrite jade (also known as greenstone or pounamu) consists of the calcium- and magnesium-rich amphibole mineral actinolite. The rock called jadeitite consists of sodium- and aluminium-rich pyroxene. Nephrite can be found in a creamy white form as well as in a variety of green colours, whereas jadeitite shows more colour variations, including blue, lavender-mauve, pink, and emerald-green colours.
Jasper
   is coloured   
Brown
An opaque, impure variety of silica, usually red, yellow or brown in colour, can be green. Jasper is opaque, fine-grained or dense variety of the silica mineral chert. Can be highly polished for use in jewellery.
Kunzite
   is coloured   
Pink
The pink or lilac form of spodumene is a pyroxene mineral consisting of lithium aluminium inosilicate. The colour comes from small amounts of manganese. Kunzite gems are known their brilliance. They are difficult to cut.
Kyanite
   is coloured   
Blue
A silicate mineral. Kyanite is used as a gemstone, though this use is limited by its anisotropism (lacking consistent hardness on all surfaces) and perfect cleavage.
Lapis Lazuli
   is coloured   
Blue
Lapis lazuli is not a mineral but a rock coloured by lazurite. In addition to the sodalite minerals in lapis lazuli, small amounts of white calcite and of pyrite crystals are usually present. Its deep blue colour makes it prized for jewellery.
Larimar
   is coloured   
Blue
Blue gem variant of pectolite. High quality jewellery uses stones between sky-blue and volcanic blue. Extremely rare gemstone that has been found in only one location in the Dominican Republic. Varies from light blue to blue-green in colour
Malachite
   is coloured   
Green
A carbonate mineral normally known as copper carbonate. It is a banded green gemstone. Most malachite is smelted, but the finest pieces are worked into silver jewellery.
Moissanite
   is coloured   
Clear
Moissanite or silicon carbide is a rare mineral that can be found in meteorites as well as terrestrial samples. Used as a replacement for diamonds in jewellery.
Moonstone
   is coloured   
Blue
The most valuable variety of feldspar with an rainbow sheen. Other colours include grey, brown, yellow, orange, green, or pink. It owes its name to a shimmer which looks different when the stone is moved and is known in the trade as 'adularescence'. Clarity ranges from transparent to translucent. It is relatively soft which limits its uses for jewellery.
Moonstone
   is coloured   
White
Moonstone is the most valuable variety of feldspar with an rainbow sheen. Other colours include grey, brown, yellow, orange, green, or pink. It owes its name to a shimmer which looks different when the stone is moved and is known in the trade as 'adularescence'. Clarity ranges from transparent to translucent. It is relatively soft which limits its uses for jewellery.
Morganite
   is coloured   
Pink
A rare light pink to rose-coloured gem-quality variety of the mineral beryl.
Obsidian
   is coloured   
Black
Obsidian is a naturally occurring glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools without crystal growth.The presence of hematite produces red and brown varieties, and the inclusion of tiny gas bubbles may create a golden sheen. Obsidian in attractive and variegated colours is used as a semiprecious stone. It possesses the property of presenting a different appearance according to the manner in which it is cut.
Onyx
   is coloured   
Black
Banded. A cryptocrystalline form of quartz. Often made into beads or shaped and polished as opposed to faceted.
Opal
   is coloured   
Blue
Opal consists of amorthous silica, a solidified jelly that has no crystal structure. Opal ranges from clear through white, grey, red, orange, yellow, green, shore, blue, magenta, rose, pink, slate, olive, brown, and black. Of these, the reds against black are the most rare, whereas white, blues and greens are the most common. The play of colour in many opals is truly exceptional and unsurpassed.
Opal
   is coloured   
Blue and Green
Opal consists of amorthous silica, a solidified jelly that has no crystal structure. Opal ranges from clear through white, grey, red, orange, yellow, green, shore, blue, magenta, rose, pink, slate, olive, brown, and black. Of these, the reds against black are the most rare, whereas white, blues and greens are the most common. The play of colour in many opals is truly exceptional and unsurpassed.
Opal
   is coloured   
White
Opal consists of amorthous silica, a solidified jelly that has no crystal structure. Opal ranges from clear through white, grey, red, orange, yellow, green, shore, blue, magenta, rose, pink, slate, olive, brown, and black. Of these, the reds against black are the most rare, whereas white, blues and greens are the most common. The play of colour in many opals is truly exceptional and unsurpassed.
Paraiba Tourmaline
   is coloured   
Blue
A borosilicate mineral. Turquoise-blue to neon-blue to neon-green to emerald-green. Even heavy inclusions are accepted for jewellery, as there are hardly any flawless paraiba tourmalines of good colour.
Paraiba Tourmaline
   is coloured   
Green
A borosilicate mineral. Turquoise-blue to neon-blue to neon-green to emerald-green. Even heavy inclusions are accepted for jewellery, as there are hardly any flawless paraiba tourmalines of good colour.
Pearl
   is coloured   
Cream
Other colours are white, grey, blue, yellow, lavender, green, and mauve. A pearl is a hard, roundish object produced within the soft tissue of a living shelled mollusc. It is composed of calcium carbonate in minute crystalline form
Pearl
   is coloured   
White
Other colours are cream, grey, blue, yellow, lavender, green, and mauve. A pearl is a hard, roundish object produced within the soft tissue of a living shelled mollusc. It is composed of calcium carbonate in minute crystalline form
Peridot
   is coloured   
Green
Peridot (Magnesium iron silicate), also called precious olivine, is a gem-quality transparent green olivine. It occurs in lime, yellowish green, olive green or medium dark green hues. Peridot was greatly prized by Egyptian Kings. Some of Cleopatra's emeralds were in fact peridots.
Prasiolite
   is coloured   
Green
Also known as green-quartz or vermarine. It is a green form of quartz. It is usually produced artificially by heat-treating amethyst.
Pyrite
   is coloured   
Yellow
Also known as iron pyrite, it is an iron sulfide. Its metallic luster and brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold. Pyrite is often used in jewellery such as necklaces and bracelets.
Quartz
   is coloured   
Clear
Sometimes called rock crystal. Quartz is made up of a lattice of silica. Pure quartz is colourless or white; coloured varieties include rose quartz, amethyst, smoky quartz, milky quartz, and many others. Clear Quartz crystals are worn by some as pendants for good luck.
Quartz
   is coloured   
White
Sometimes called rock crystal. Quartz is made up of a lattice of silica. Pure quartz is colourless or white; coloured varieties include rose quartz, amethyst, smoky quartz, milky quartz, and many others.
Rose Quartz
   is coloured   
Pink
Quartz is made up of a lattice of silica. Pure quartz is colourless or white; coloured varieties include rose quartz. Rose quartz is one of the most desirable varieties of quartz for jewellery and other ornamental uses. The colour is caused by iron and titanium impurities.
Ruby
   is coloured   
Red
A variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide). The common red colour is caused mainly by the element chromium. Prices of rubies are primarily determined by colour. The brightest and best "red" called pigeon blood red,
Sapphire
   is coloured   
Blue
Gem varieties of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide, when it is a colour other than red (ruby). Trace amounts of other elements such as iron, titanium and chromium give corundum their blue, yellow, pink, purple, orange or greenish colour. The most common colour used for gemstones is blue.
Sardonyx
   is coloured   
Reddish-brown and White Bands
A reddish brown and white form of onyx, a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. Often made into beads or shaped and polished as opposed to faceted.
Schorl Tourmaline
   is coloured   
Black
Bluish or brownish-black to black. Schorl tourmaline is the most common form of tourmaline. It is a crystal silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron and sodium. Jwellery made from schorl tourmaline, is quite uncommon because it's rare to find gem-quality stones of this fascinating gem
Serpentine
   is coloured   
Green
Serpentine is a translucent, waxy silicate of magnesium that is often confused with jade. It is primarily some shade of green, vary­ing from yellowish-green to blackish-green. This colour may be uniform or mottled, or may include spots of other minerals, such as the white of calcite, or cherry-red from iron oxide. Prized for its lustre and translucency.
Sodalite
   is coloured   
Blue
Named for its sodium content it is classed as a feldspathoid. Most commonly a rich royal blue it can also be grey, yellow, green, or pink. The more uniformly blue material is used in jewellery, where it is made into cabochons and beads.
Spinel-ruby
   is coloured   
Red
These were often confused with actual rubies in ancient times. The Black Prince's Ruby in the British Crown Jewels is in fact a spinel.
Sugilite
   is coloured   
Pink
Sugilite (also known as luvulite) is a relatively rare pink to purple cyclosilicate mineral. Discovered in 1944. It is used in jewellery and as a mineral specimen
Sugilite
   is coloured   
Purple
Sugilite (also known as luvulite) is a relatively rare pink to purple cyclosilicate mineral. Discovered in 1944. It is used in jewellery and as a mineral specimen.
Tanzanite
   is coloured   
Blue
Tanzanite is the blue/purple variety of the mineral zoisite. Tanzanite in its rough state is usually a reddish brown colour. It is heated to bring out the classic blue violet of the stone for use in jewellery.
Tanzanite
   is coloured   
Purple
Tanzanite is the blue/purple variety of the mineral zoisite. Tanzanite in its rough state is usually a reddish brown colour. It is heated to bring out the classic blue violet of the stone for use in jewellery.
Thulite
   is coloured   
Pink
Thulite (also called rosaline) is a deep pink manganese-rich variety of the mineral zoisite. It is used as a gemstone and carving material in the manufacture of jewellery and ornamental objects.
Tiger's Eye
   is coloured   
Brown and Yellow Bands
Also known as tiger eye. It is quartz that contains oriented fibres of crocidolite that have been replaced by silica. Undulating, contrasting bands of colour and lustre. It is mainly used for jewelry-making and ornamentation.
Topaz
   is coloured   
Blue
Topaz is an aluminum fluorite silicate containing fluorine. Pure topaz is colourless, but can also be yellow, blue, pink, peach, gold, green, red, and brown. Has been used for jewellery since ancient times. Blue topaz is usually made by irradiating and then heating clear crystals.
Topaz
   is coloured   
Yellow
Topaz is an aluminum fluorite silicate containing fluorine. Pure topaz is colourless, but can also be yellow, blue, pink, peach, gold, green, red, and brown. Has been used for jewellery since ancient times.
Tsavorite
   is coloured   
Green
Tsavorite or tsavolite is a variety of the garnet group species grossular, a calcium-aluminium garnet. Not often found in jewellery because of its rarity.
Turquoise
   is coloured   
Blue
Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminium. It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a gem and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue.
Zircon
   is coloured   
Clear
Zircon (zirconium silicate) known as a colourless stone used to imitate diamonds, but also comes in: blue, yellow, orange, red, brown and green.


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