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94 facts:

Ablation
   means   
When Glacier Deterioration Exceeds Annual Snowfall
A-horizon
   means   
The Uppermost Layer of a Soil Containing Organic Material
Alluvial Fan
   means   
A Low, Cone Shaped Deposit of Terrestrial Sediment
Formed where a stream undergoes an abrupt reduction of slope
Alluvium
   means   
Sand, Gravel and Silt Left in a Valley by Waterways
Anhydrous
   means   
Without Water
Argillaceous
   means   
Rock Rich With Clay
Aseismic
   means   
Earthquake-free Regions
Atoll
   means   
A Continuous or Broken Circle of Coral Reef
Backwash
   means   
The Return Flow of Water Down a Beach After a Wave Has Broken
Bankfull Stage
   means   
The Height of Water in a Stream
Corresponds to the level of the surrounding floodplain.
Barrier Island
   means   
A Long, Narrow Island Parallel to the Shore
Composed of sand and built by wave action.
Base-level
   means   
The Level Below Which a Stream Cannot Erode
Usually sea level sometimes locally the level of a lake or resistant formation.
Basin
   means   
The Site of Accumulation of a Large Thickness of Sediments
B-horizon
   means   
The Intermediate Layer in a Soil
Situated below the A-horizon and consisting of clays and oxides
Block Fault
   means   
A Structure Formed when the Crust is Divided Into Blocks
Different elevation by a set of normal faults.
Blowout
   means   
A Shallow Circular or Elliptical Depression in Sand
Dry soil formed by wind erosion.
Boulder
   means   
Any Rock Larger Than Ten Inches (256 Mm)
Butte
   means   
A Steep Sided and Flat Topped Hill Formed by Erosion
Flat laying strata where remnants of a resistant layer protect the softer rocks underneath.
Caldera
   means   
A Large, Circular Depression in a Volcanic Terrain
Typically originating in collapse, explosion, or erosion.
Central Vent
   means   
The Largest Vent of a Volcano
C-horizon
   means   
The Lowest Layer of Soil Consisting of Fragments of Rock
Cinder Cone
   means   
A Steep, Conical Hill Built up About a Volcanic Vent
Composed of coarse pyroclasts expelled from the vent by escaping gases.
Cirque
   means   
The Head of a Glacial Valley
Clast
   means   
A Rock or Fossil Embedded in Another Rock
Cleavage
   means   
The Tendency of Minerals to Break at Their Weakest Planes
Coastal Plain
   means   
A Low Plain of Little Relief Adjacent to the Ocean
Cobble
   means   
Rocks Larger Than Pebbles but Smaller Than Boulders
Composite Cone
   means   
The Volcanic Cone of a Stratovolcano
Composed of both cinders and lava flows.
Craton
   means   
The Relatively Stable Nucleus of a Continent
Crust
   means   
The Outer Layer of Earth
Crystallization
   means   
The Process in Which Minerals Form from Liquid or Gas
Debris Avalanche
   means   
A Fast Downhill Mass Movement of Soil and Rock
Deflation
   means   
The Removal of Loose Material by Wind
Delta
   means   
The Point Where a Waterway Enters a Lake or Sea, Dropping Sediment
Density Current
   means   
A Subaqueous Current That Flows on the Bottom of a Sea
Desert
   means   
An Area Accumulating 10 or Less Inches of Precipitation Annually
Desiccate
   means   
To Dry out
Drumlin
   means   
A Smooth, Streamlined Hill Composed of Till
Dune
   means   
An Elongated Mound of Sand Formed by Wind or Water
Elevation
   means   
The Vertical Height of One Point on the Earth Above a Fixed Reference Point
Usually above mean sea level
Eon
   means   
The Largest Unit on the Geologic Time Scale
Epoch
   means   
One Subdivision of a Geologic Period
Erosion
   means   
When Soil and Rock Are Loosened and Moved Downhill or Downwind
Extrusion
   means   
Volcanic Rocks Erupting on the Surface
Fault
   means   
A Gently Curved Fracture in the Earth's Crust
Fiord
   means   
A Glaciated Valley Flooded by the Sea
Aka fjord. A U-shaped profile now occupied by the sea. A long, narrow, steep-walled inlet.
Firn
   means   
Partially Compacted Snow Surviving Summer Melt
Fossil Fuel
   means   
Combustible Geologic Deposits of Carbon
Reduced (organic) form and of biological origin, including coal, oil, natural gas, oil shales, and tar sands.
Fumarole
   means   
A Volcanic Vent Emitting Gas
Geyser
   means   
A Hot Spring That Throws Hot Water and Steam Into the Air
The heat is thought to result from the contact of groundwater with magma bodies.
Glacial Valley
   means   
A Valley Occupied or Formerly Occupied by a Glacier
Typically with a U-shaped profile.
Glacier
   means   
A Mass of Ice and Surficial Snow That Persists Throughout the Year
The size range is from 100 meters to 10,000 kilometers.
Gondwana
   means   
An Ancient Land Mass Comprised of Parts of Several Present-day Continents
Gravel
   means   
Any Rock Particle Larger Than 2 Mm
Includes pebbles, cobbles and boulders
Groundwater
   means   
The Mass of Water in the Ground Below the Phreatic Zone
Gully
   means   
A Small Steep-sided Valley or Erosional Channel
Hill
   means   
A Natural Land Elevation
The distinction between hill and mountain depends on the locality.
Holocene
   means   
The Current Epoch
Started 10,000 years ago. That's just yesterday in geological terms
Impermeable
   means   
Rock or Sediment Barring Water Passage
Kettle
   means   
A Small Hollow or Depression Formed in Glacial Deposits
Lahar
   means   
Volcanic Mudflow Composed of Water, Ash and Debris
Landslide
   means   
A Fast Downhill Mass Movement of Soil and Rock
Levee
   means   
A Low Ridge Along a Stream Bank
Lithification
   means   
The Conversion of Sediment Into Rock
Loess
   means   
A Wind-blown Deposit of Sediment
Lowland
   means   
Land of General Low Relief at the Lower Levels of Regional Elevation.
Mantle
   means   
The Main Bulk of the Earth, Between the Crust and Core
Mid-ocean Ridge
   means   
A Major Linear Elevated Landform of the Ocean Floor
It is not a single ridge, but resembles a mountain range and may have a central rift valley.
Moraine
   means   
A Pile of Rock Rubble Created by a Glacier
Mountain
   means   
A Steep-sided Topographic Elevation Larger Than a Hill
Also a single prominence forming part of a ridge or mountain range.
Ore
   means   
A Natural Deposit Containing a Valuable Metallic Element
Occurs in high enough concentration to make mining economically feasible.
Outcrop
   means   
A Segment of Bedrock Exposed to the Atmosphere
Pahoehoe
   means   
A Lava Flow With a Smooth, Ropy Surface
Peat
   means   
A Marsh or Swamp Deposit of Water-soaked Plant Remains
Pebble
   means   
A Rock Ranging from 2 to 64 Mm in Diameter
Pothole
   means   
A Semispherical Hole in the Bedrock of a Stream Bed
Formed by abrasion of small pebbles and cobbles in a strong current.
Relief
   means   
Differences in Elevation
Rift Valley
   means   
A Fault Trough Formed in a Divergence Zone or Other Area of Tension
Rip Current
   means   
A Current That Flows Strongly Away from the Sea Shore
Through gaps in the surf zone at intervals along the shoreline.
Sand
   means   
Particles of Rock Ranging from .0625 to 2 Mm in Diameter
Scarp
   means   
A Cliff Formed by Faulting, Erosion or Landslide
Stalactite
   means   
A Mineral Deposit That Hangs Down in a Cave
Stalagmite
   means   
Formations on the Floor of Limestone Caves by Dripping Minerals
Often meeting in the middle with stalactites
Stratovolcano
   means   
A Volcanic Cone Consisting of Both Lava and Pyroclastic Rocks
Strike-slip Fault
   means   
A Fault Whose Relative Displacement is Purely Horizontal
Submarine Canyon
   means   
An Underwater Canyon in the Continental Shelf
Tarn
   means   
A Small Lake Left by a Retreating Glacier
Terrace
   means   
A Long Benchlike Surface Often Bordering a Body of Water
Tidal Flat
   means   
A Broad, Flat Region of Muddy or Sandy Sediment
Covered and uncovered in each tidal cycle.
Trench
   means   
A Long and Narrow Deep Trough in the Sea Floor
Interpreted as marking the line along which a plate bends down into a subduction zone.
Tsunami
   means   
A Large Destructive Wave Caused by Sea-floor Movements in an Earthquake
Upwelling Current
   means   
The Upward Movement of Cold Bottom Water in the Sea
Which occurs when wind or currents displace the lighter surface water.
Vesicle
   means   
A Small Bubble Formed in Volcanic Rock While Solidifying
Vitreous
   means   
Glassy


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