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Nobel Prize for Chemistry

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The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

117 facts:

Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose
   won for   
The Discovery of Ubiquitin-mediated Protein Degradation
2004
Aaron Klug
   won for   
Development of Crystallographic Electron Microscopy
1982 - And his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt
   won for   
Sex Hormones
1939
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus
   won for   
The Constitution of the Sterols and Their Connection With the Vitamins
1928
Ahmed H. Zewail
   won for   
The Transition States of Chemical Reactions Using Femtosecond Spectroscopy
1999
Alfred Werner
   won for   
The Linkage of Atoms in Molecules
1913
Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa
   won for   
The Discovery and Development of Conductive Polymers
2000
Archer J.P. Martin & Richard L.M. Synge
   won for   
Invention of Partition Chromatography
1952
Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius
   won for   
Electrophoresis and Adsorption Analysis
1948 - Especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins
Arthur Harden and Hans Euler-Chelpin
   won for   
The Fermentation of Sugar and Fermentative Enzymes
1929
Artturi Ilmari Virtanen
   won for   
Invention of the Fodder Preservation Method
1945
Carl Bosch & Friedrich Bergius
   won for   
Invention and Development of Chemical High Pressure Methods
1931
Christian B. Anfinsen
   won for   
Ribonuclease
1972
Derek H. R. Barton and Odd Hassel
   won for   
Development of the Concept of Conformation
1969
Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn and Charles J. Pedersen
   won for   
Development and Use of Molecules With Structure
1987 - Specific interactions of high selectivity
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
   won for   
X-ray Techniques of the Structures of Important Biochemical Substances
1964
Dan Shechtman
   won for   
The Discovery of Quasicrystals
2011
Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee and John C. Polanyi
   won for   
The Dynamics of Chemical Elementary Processes
1986
Eduard Buchner
   won for   
Discovery of Cell-free Fermentation
1907
Edwin Mattison McMillan and Glenn Theodore Seaborg
   won for   
Discoveries in the Chemistry of Transuranium Elements
1951
Elias James Corey
   won for   
The Theory and Methodology of Organic Synthesis
1990
Ernest Rutherford
   won for   
Chemistry of Radioactive Substances
1908
Ernst Otto Fischer and Geoffrey Wilkinson
   won for   
The Chemistry of the Organometallic
1973 - So called sandwich compounds
Francis William Aston
   won for   
Enunciation of the Whole-number Rule
1922
Frédéric Joliot and Irene Joliot-Curie
   won for   
Synthesis of New Radioactive Elements
1935
Frederick Sanger
   won for   
The Structure of Proteins (insulin)
1958
Frederick Soddy
   won for   
Origin and Nature of Isotopes
1921
Fritz Haber
   won for   
Synthesis of Ammonia from Its Elements
1918
Fritz Pregl
   won for   
The Method of Micro-analysis of Organic Substances
1923
George A. Olah
   won for   
Carbocation Chemistry
1994
George De Hevesy
   won for   
Use of Isotopes As Tracers in the Study of Chemical Processes
1943
Gerhard Ertl
   won for   
Chemical Processes on Solid Surfaces
2007
Gerhard Herzberg
   won for   
Electronic Structure and Geometry of Molecules
1971
Hans Fischer
   won for   
Synthesis of Haemin
1930
Harold Clayton Urey
   won for   
Discovery of Heavy Hydrogen
1934
Heinrich Otto Wieland
   won for   
The Constitution of the Bile Acids
1927
Henri Moissan
   won for   
Isolation of the Element Fluorine
1906
Henry Taube
   won for   
The Mechanisms of Electron Transfer Reactions
1983
Herbert A. Hauptman and Jerome Karle
   won for   
Developing Direct Methods for the Determination of Crystal Structures
1985
Herbert C. Brown and Georg Wittig
   won for   
The Use of Boron- and Phosphorus-containing Compounds
1979
Hermann Emil Fischer
   won for   
Sugar and Purine Syntheses
1902
Hermann Staudinger
   won for   
Discoveries in the Field of Macromolecular Chemistry
1953
Ilya Prigogine
   won for   
Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics
1977 - Particularly the theory of dissipative structures
Irving Langmuir
   won for   
Discoveries and Investigation in Surface Chemistry
1932
Jacobus Henricus Van 't Hoff
   won for   
Laws of Chemical Dynamics and Osmotic Pressure in Solutions
1901
James Batcheller Sumner
   won for   
Discovery That Enzymes Can Be Crystallized
1946
Jaroslav Heyrovský
   won for   
Discovery and Development of the Polarographic Methods of Analysis
1959
Jens C. Skou
   won for   
The First Discovery of an Ion-transporting Enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase
1997
Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Harmut Michel
   won for   
Determination of the Three-dimensional Structure of a Photosynthetic Reaction Centre
1988
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf Von Baeyer
   won for   
Organic Dyes and Hydroaromatic Compounds
1905
John A. Pople
   won for   
Development of Computational Methods in Quantum Chemistry
1998
John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka
   won for   
Methods for Identification and Structure Analyses of Biological Macromolecules
2002 - For their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules
John Howard Northrop and Wendell Meredith Stanley
   won for   
Preparation of Enzymes and Virus Proteins in a Pure Form
1946
John Warcup Cornforth
   won for   
The Stereochemistry of Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions
1975
Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta
   won for   
Discoveries and Technology of High Polymers
1963
Kary B. Mullis and Michael Smith
   won for   
Invention of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Method
1993
K. Barry Sharpless
   won for   
Chirally Catalysed Oxidation Reactions
2001
Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann
   won for   
The Course of Chemical Reactions
1981
Kurt Wüthrich
   won for   
Development of Methods for Identification and Structure Analyses of Biological Macromolecules
2002 - For his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution
Lars Onsager
   won for   
Discovery of the Reciprocal Relations
1968 - Fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes
Leopold Ruzicka
   won for   
Work on Polymethylenes and Higher Terpenes
1939
Linus Carl Pauling
   won for   
The Elucidation of the Structure of Complex Substances
1954
Lord Alexander R. Todd
   won for   
Nucleotides and Nucleotide Co-enzymes
1957
Luis F. Leloir
   won for   
Discovery of Sugar Nucleotides and Their Role in the Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates
1970
Manfred Eigen, Ronald Norris and George Porter
   won for   
Extremely Fast Chemical Reactions
1967 - Effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy
Marie Curie
   won for   
Discovery of the Elements Radium and Polonium
1911
Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel
   won for   
The Development of Multi-scale Models for Complex Chemical Systems
2013
Max Ferdinand Perutz and John Cowdery Kendrew
   won for   
The Structures of Globular Proteins
1962
Melvin Calvin
   won for   
Carbon Dioxide Assimilation in Plants
1961
Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger U. Tsien
   won for   
The Discovery and Development of the Green Fluorescent Protein, GFP
2008
Otto Hahn
   won for   
Discovery of the Fission of Heavy Nuclei
1944
Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder
   won for   
Discovery and Development of the Diene Synthesis
1950
Otto Wallach
   won for   
Alicyclic Compounds
1910
Paul Berg
   won for   
Fundamental Studies of the Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids
1980 - With particular regard to recombinant-DNA
Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker
   won for   
Elucidation of the Enzymatic Mechanism Underlying the Synthesis of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
1997
Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland
   won for   
Atmospheric Chemistry
1995 - Particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone
Paul J. Flory
   won for   
The Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules
1974
Paul Karrer
   won for   
Carotenoids, Flavins and Vitamins A and B2
1937
Paul Sabatier
   won for   
Hydrogenating Organic Compounds
1912
Peter Agre
   won for   
The Discovery of Water Channels in Cell Membranes
2003
Peter D. Mitchell
   won for   
Biological Energy Transfer
1978 - Through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory
Petrus Josephus Wilhelmus Debye
   won for   
Molecular Structure on Dipole Moments
1936
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy
   won for   
The Heterogeneous Nature of Colloid Solutions
1925
Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki
   won for   
Palladium - Catalyzed Cross Couplings in Organic Synthesis
2010
Richard Kuhn
   won for   
Carotenoids and Vitamins
1938
Richard Martin Willstätter
   won for   
Research on Plant Pigments
1915 - Especially chlorophyll
Richard R. Ernst
   won for   
Development of the Methodology of High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
1991
Robert Bruce Merrifield
   won for   
Development of Methodology for Chemical Synthesis on a Solid Matrix
1984
Robert Burns Woodward
   won for   
Outstanding Achievements in the Art of Organic Synthesis
1965
Robert F. Curl Jr., Sir Harold W. Kroto and Richard E. Smalley
   won for   
Discovery of Fullerenes
1996
Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka
   won for   
Studies of G-protein-coupled Receptors
2012
Robert S. Mulliken
   won for   
Electronic Structure of Molecules by the Molecular Orbital Method
1966
Roderick MacKinnon
   won for   
Discoveries of Structural and Mechanistic Studies of Ion Channels
2003
Roger D. Kornberg
   won for   
The Molecular Basis of Eukaryotic Transcription
2006
Rudolph A. Marcus
   won for   
The Theory of Electron Transfer Reactions in Chemical Systems
1992
Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech
   won for   
Discovery of Catalytic Properties of RNA
1989
Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood & Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov
   won for   
The Mechanism of Chemical Reactions
1956
Sir Robert Robinson
   won for   
Investigations on Plant Products of Biological Importance
1947
Sir William Ramsay
   won for   
Discovery of the Inert Gaseous Elements in Air
1904 - And his determination of their place in the periodic system
Stanford Moore and William H. Stein
   won for   
The Connection Between Chemical Structure and Catalytic Activity
1972 - Of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule
Svante August Arrhenius
   won for   
Electrolytic Theory of Dissociation
1903
Theodore William Richards
   won for   
The Atomic Weight of a Large Number of Chemical Elements
1914
Theodor Svedberg
   won for   
Disperse Systems
1926
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath
   won for   
Studies of the Structure and Function of the Ribosome
2009
Victor Grignard
   won for   
Organometallic Chemical Reaction
1912 - Also known as the 'Grignard Reaction'.
Vincent Du Vigneaud
   won for   
Biochemically Important Sulphur Compounds
1955 - For the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone
Vladimir Prelog
   won for   
The Stereochemistry of Organic Molecules and Reactions
1975
Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger
   won for   
The Determination of Base Sequences in Nucleic Acids
1980
Walter Kohn
   won for   
Development of the Density-functional Theory
1998
Walter Norman Haworth
   won for   
Carbohydrates and Vitamin C
1937
Walther Hermann Nernst
   won for   
Thermochemistry
1920
Wilhelm Ostwald
   won for   
Chemical Equilibria and Rates of Reaction
1909
Willard Frank Libby
   won for   
The Use of Carbon-14 for Age Determination in Archaeology
1960 - Also for geology, geophysics, and other branches of science
William Francis Giauque
   won for   
The Field of Chemical Thermodynamics
1949 - Concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures
William N. Lipscomb
   won for   
The Structure of Boranes Illuminating Problems of Chemical Bonding
1976
William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori
   won for   
Chirally Catalysed Hydrogenation Reactions
2001
Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock
   won for   
The Development of the Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis
2005


Facts contributed by:


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