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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded annually by the Swedish Karolinska Institute to scientists and doctors in the various fields of physiology or medicine.

While commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Medicine, Nobel specifically stated that the prize be awarded for "physiology or medicine" in his will. Because of this, the prize can be awarded in a broader range of fields.

115 facts:

Albert Claude, Christian De Duve and George E. Palade
   won for work on   
The Structural and Functional Organization of the Cell
1974
Albert Szent-Györgyi Von Nagyrapolt
   won for work on   
The Biological Combustion Processess
1937 - With special reference to Vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid
Albrecht Kossel
   won for work on   
Proteins Including Nucleic Substances
1910
Alexis Carrel
   won for work on   
Transplantation of Blood Vessels and Organs
1912
Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell
   won for work on   
The Discovery of G-proteins
1994
Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield
   won for work on   
The Development of Computer Assisted Tomography
1979
Allvar Gullstrand
   won for work on   
The Dioptrics of the Eye
1911
André Cournand, Werner Forssmann and Dickenson W. Richards
   won for work on   
Discoveries Concerning Heart Catheterization
1956 - And pathological changes in the circulatory system
Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello
   won for work on   
The Discovery of RNA Interference
2006
Antonio Caetano Moniz
   won for work on   
The Therapeutic Value of Leucotomy in Certain Psychoses
1949
Archibald Vivian Hill
   won for work on   
The Production of Heat in the Muscle
1922
Arthur Kornberg and Severo Ochoa
   won for work on   
Biological Synthesis for Ribonucleic Acid and Deoxyribonucleic Acid
1959
Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel
   won for work on   
Signal Transduction in the Nervous System
2000
Axel Theorell
   won for work on   
The Nature and Mode of Action of Oxidation Enzymes
1955
Barbara McClintock
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Mobile Genetic Elements
1983
Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren
   won for work on   
Helicobacter Pylori's Role in Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease
2005
Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek
   won for work on   
The Origin and Dissemination of Infectious Diseases
1976
Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset and George D. Snell
   won for work on   
Structures on the Cell Surface That Regulate Immunological Reactions
1980
Bernardo Alberto Houssay
   won for work on   
The Anterior Pituitary Lobe in the Metabolism of Sugar
1947
Bruce A. Beutler & Jules A. Hoffman
   won for work on   
Their Discoveries Concerning the Activation of Innate Immunity
2011
Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón Y Cajal
   won for work on   
The Structure of the Nervous System
1906
Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori
   won for work on   
The Catalytic Conversion of Glycogen
1947
Carl Peter Henrik Dam
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Vitamin K
1943
Charles Brenton Huggins
   won for work on   
Hormonal Treatment of Prostatic Cancer
1966
Charles Jules Henri Nicolle
   won for work on   
Typhus
1928
Charles Louis Laveran
   won for work on   
Protozoa in Causing Diseases.
1907
Charles Robert Richet
   won for work on   
Anaphylaxis
1913
Christiaan Eijkmann
   won for work on   
The Discovery of the Antineuritic Vitamin
1929
Corneille Jean François Heymans
   won for work on   
The Sinus and Aortic Mechanisms in the Regulation of Respiration
1938
Daniel Bovet
   won for work on   
Discoveries Relating to Synthetic Compounds
1957 - That inhibit the action of certain body substances
David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Temin
   won for work on   
The Interaction Between Tumour Viruses and the Genetic Material of the Cell
1975
David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel
   won for work on   
The Information Processing in the Visual System
1981
Earle W. Sutherland, Jr.
   won for work on   
The Mechanisms of the Action of Hormones
1971
Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Reversible Protein Phosphorylation
1992
Edward Adelbert Doisy
   won for work on   
The Discovery of the Chemical Nature of Vitamin K
1943
Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus
   won for work on   
Genetic Control of Early Embryonic Development
1995
Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostok
   won for work on   
The Discovery of How Chromosomes Are Protected by Telomeres and the Enzyme Telomerase
2009
Emil Adolf Von Behring
   won for work on   
Diphtheria Serum Therapy
1901
Emil Theodor Kocher
   won for work on   
Physiology, Pathology and Surgery of the Thyroid Gland
1909
Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann
   won for work on   
The Function of Single Ion Channels in Cells
1991
Francis Crick, James Watson and Maurice Wilkins
   won for work on   
The Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids
1962
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier
   won for work on   
The Discovery of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
2008
François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod
   won for work on   
Genetic Control of Enzyme and Virus Synthesis
1965
Frederick Grand Banting and John Richard Macleod
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Insulin
1923
George Wells and Edward Tatum
   won for work on   
Genes Acting by Regulating Definite Chemical Events
1958
George Whipple, George Minot and William Murphy
   won for work on   
Discoveries in Liver Therapy in Cases of Anaemia
1934
Georg Von Békésy
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Physical Mechanism of Stimulation Within the Cochlea
1961
Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter
   won for work on   
The Chemical Structure of Antibodies
1972
Gerhard Domagk
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Antibacterial Effects of Prontosil
1939
Günter Blobel
   won for work on   
The Discovery That Proteins Have Intrinsic Signals
1999
Hans Adolf Krebs and Fritz Albert Lipmann
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Co-enzyme A
1953
Hans Soenann
   won for work on   
Organizer Effect in Embryonic Development
1935
Harald Zur Hausen
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Human Papilloma Viruses Causing Cervical Cancer
2008
Hermann Joseph Muller
   won for work on   
Production of Mutations by Means of X-ray Irradiation
1946
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich
   won for work on   
Immunity
1908
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
   won for work on   
The Physiology of Digestion
1904
James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Sudhof
   won for work on   
Their Discoveries of Machinery Regulating Vesicle Traffic, a Major Transport System in Our Cells
2013. A major transport system in our cells
J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus
   won for work on   
The Discovery of the Cellular Origin of Retroviral Oncogenes
1989
Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger
   won for work on   
The Discovery of the Spiroptera Carcinoma
1926
John Enders, Federick Robbins and Thomas Weller
   won for work on   
The Discovery of the Ability of Poliomyelitis Viruses to Grow
1954 - In cultures of various types of tissue
Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnal Thomas
   won for work on   
Organ and Cell Transplantation
1990 - in the treatment of human desease
Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Gasser
   won for work on   
Highly Differentiated Functions of Single Nerve Fibres
1944
Joshua Lederberg
   won for work on   
Discoveries Concerning Genetic Recombination
1958
Jules Bordet
   won for work on   
Discoveries Relating to Immunity
1919
Julius Axelrod, Ulf Von Euler and Sir Bernard Katz
   won for work on   
The Humoral Transmittors in the Nerve Terminals
1970 Their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation.
Julius Wagner-Jauregg
   won for work on   
The Therapeutic Value of Malaria Inoculation
1927 - In the treatment of demetia paralytica
Karl Landsteiner
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Human Blood Groups
1930
Karl Von Frish, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen
   won for work on   
The Organization and Elicitation of Individual and Social Behaviour Patterns
1973
Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen
   won for work on   
Regulation of the Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Metabolism
1964
Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse
   won for work on   
Key Regulators of the Cell Cycle
2001
Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Principles for Embryonic Stem Cells
2007
Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria
   won for work on   
The Replication Mechanism and Genetic Structure of Viruses
1969
Max Theiler
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Yellow Fever and How to Combat It
1951
Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein
   won for work on   
The Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism
1985
Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein
   won for work on   
The Development and Control of the Immune System
1984 - And the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies
Niels Ryberg Finsen
   won for work on   
Treatment of Lupus Vulgaris
1903
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
   won for work on   
Metabolism of Lactic Acid in the Muscle
1922
Otto Heinrich Warburg
   won for work on   
The Mode of Action of the Respiratory Enzyme
1931
Paul Hermann Müller
   won for work on   
DDT As a Contact Poison Against Several Arthropods
1948
Paul Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield
   won for work on   
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
2003
Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel
   won for work on   
Cell Mediated Immune Defence
1996
Peyton Rous
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Tumour-inducing Viruses
1966
Philip Hench, Edward Kendall and Tadeusz Reichstein
   won for work on   
Discoveries of the Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
1950
Ragnar Granit, Haldan Hartline and George Wald
   won for work on   
The Primary Physiological and Chemical Visual Processes in the Eye
1967
Ralph M. Steinman
   won for work on   
His Discovery of the Dendrite Cell and Its Role in Adaptive Immunity
2011
Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck
   won for work on   
Odorant Receptors
2004
Richard J. Roberts and Phillip A. Sharp
   won for work on   
Discoveries of Split Genes
1993
Robert Bárány
   won for work on   
Pathology of the Vestibular Apparatus
1914
Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad
   won for work on   
Nitric Oxide As a Signalling Molecule
1998 - In the cardiovascular system
Robert G. Edwards
   won for work on   
The Development of In-Vitro Fertilization
2010
Robert Holly, Har Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg
   won for work on   
The Interpretation of the Genetic Code
1968 - It's function in protein synthesis
Robert Koch
   won for work on   
Discoveries in Tuberculosis
1905
Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally
   won for work on   
The Peptide Hormone Production of the Brain
1977
Roger W. Sperry
   won for work on   
The Functional Specialization of the Cerebral Hemispheres
1981
Ronald Ross
   won for work on   
Malaria
1902
Rosalyn Yalow
   won for work on   
Radioimmunoassays of Peptide Hormones
1977
Schack August Steenberg Krogh
   won for work on   
The Capillary Motor Regulating Mechanism
1920
Selman Abraham Waksman
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Streptomycin
1952 - The first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis
Sir Alexander Flemming, Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Howard Florey
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Penicillin
1945 - It's curative effect in various infectious diseases
Sir Charles Sherringon and Edgar Adrian
   won for work on   
Discoveries Regarding the Functions of Neurons
1932
Sir Federick Gowland Hopkins
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Growth-stimulating Vitamins
1929
Sir Frank Burnet and Peter Medawar
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Acquired Immunological Tolerance
1960
Sir Henry Dale and Otto Loewi
   won for work on   
Chemical Transmission of Nerve Impulses
1936
Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings
   won for work on   
Important Principles for Drug Treatment
1988
Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka
   won for work on   
The Discovery That Mature Cells Can Be Programmed to Become Pluripotent
2012
Sir John Eccles, Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley
   won for work on   
The Ionic Mechnanisms of the Nerve Cell Membrane
1963
Stanley B. Prusiner
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Prions
1997 - A new biological principle of infection
Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini
   won for work on   
Discoveries of Growth Factors
1986
Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane
   won for work on   
Discoveries Concerning Prostaglandins
1982
Susumu Tonegawa
   won for work on   
Generation of Antibody Diversity
1987
Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston
   won for work on   
Programmed Cell Death
2002
Thomas Hunt Morgan
   won for work on   
The Chromosome in Heredity
1933
Walter Rudolf Hess
   won for work on   
The Funtional Organization of the Interbrain
1949 - As a coordinatopr of the activities of the interal organs
Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith
   won for work on   
The Discovery of Restriction Enzymes
1978
Willem Einthoven
   won for work on   
The Mechanism of the Electrocardiogram
1924


Facts contributed by:


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