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A founder of the modern, experimental, scientific approach to understanding
Early Chinese philosopher
Ostensibly an account of the trial of Socrates and the philosopher's defense against the charge of corrupting Athenian youth
Why there is something rather than nothing
Nietzsche was named after King Frederick William IV of Prussia, who was exactly 49 years older than him.
Believed in separation of church and state.
Paine was a self proclaimed Deist.
Marx's tombstone reads "WORKERS OF ALL LANDS, UNITE"
1950, “can machines think?”.
The form of Christianity found in this autobiography has dominated European ideas up to the present time.
One of the most influential books of the Middle Ages
Forms the central core of Kant's thinking; published, 1788
1835, “In America I saw more than America….”
A landmark in the modern history of philosophic thought
Hume's law: "it is never possible to deduce evaluative conclusions from factual premises," or, the is/ought problem
Father of English empiricism
Central idea is the God is the universe
Philosophy begins with the assumption of human existence as fact
Aims to find the underlying principle which defines actions as good or evil
A leading light of the anti-clerical rationalism of the early sixteenth century
This powerful collection of essays ranges widely across politics and philosophy in America, the role of the black intellectual, legal theory and the future of liberal thoughts.
1936, “…logic and mathematics are true, simply because we never allow them to be anything else!”.
The full title of Leviathan was originally: "Leviathan or the matter, forme and power of a common-wealth ecclesiasticall and civil"
Contains Newton's laws of motion
A collection of his notes on the philosophy of stoicism
"in which the Existence of God and the Distinction between Mind and Body are Demonstrated"; "Cogito ergo sum"
"the soul is the mirror of the universe"
1951; ethics, existentialism, metaphysics
American transcendentalist; a view of nature into which humans can and ought to immerse themselves
"If it is in our power to act nobly, it is also in our power to do evil."
Public affairs is the citizen's highest duty
1830, “war is the continuation of politics by other means”.
Incomplete at the time of his death in 1662
Kant changed his name for Emanuel to Immanuel when he learned Hebrew.
1795, “Cruelity is a virtue, not a vice”
1832, “God is the absolute truth”.
Aristotle critisizes the writings of his mentor, Plato, in this book.
1795, “Society…cannot be regarded as composed of individuals…”
1980; societal and political philosophy
In The Prince, Machiavelli stressed that 'The ends justify the means.'
1710, “Essence IS perception”.
1789, “Mankind is governed by pain and pleasure”.
Theories have changed the way human nature is viewed
1916, “Gott würfelt nicht (God does not play dice)”.
Poses the question, 'What is justice?'
Proposes that democratic reforms in America and France need to be implemented in England
Writings, published, 1996; born, 1098
1849, English translation, 1941; the concept of despair as it relates to the Christian concept of sin
Stressed amour-propre, or Self-Worth.
A philosophy of refined and calculating pleasure seeking, in contrast to the rival creed of stoicism
Believed that humans strived for their "summom bonum", or greatest good.
Also referred to as the Dinner Party
1843, “over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign”.
Introduces Pascal's Wager, a bet on the existence of God
1921, “The world is the totality of facts, not things”.
Hume was the first philosopher of the modern era to produce a thoroughly naturalistic philosophy. This philosophy partly consisted in rejection of the historically prevalent conception of human minds as being miniature versions of the divine mind.
Major influence on the founding fathers of the United States.
Utopia was originally written in Latin. Literally translated, Utopia means, "no place".
Investigation of the psychology of individual theologies
1792, “I do not wish them to have power over men, but over ourselves”.
"Objectivist ethics proudly advocates and upholds rational selfishness."
Transcendentalist with oriental influences
1776, “It is not from the benevolence of the….baker that we expect our dinner….”
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