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Light already existing in an indoor or outdoor setting that is not caused by any illumination supplied by the photographer.
Angle of view is determined by the focal length of the lens. A wide-angle lens (short-focal-length) includes more of the scene-a wider angle of view-than a normal (normal-focal-length) or telephoto (long-focal-length) lens.
The opening in a camera lens through which light passes to expose the film. The size of aperture is either fixed or adjustable. Aperture size is usually calibrated in f-numbers-the larger the number, the smaller the lens opening.
Toward the camera lens, so that the subject stands out vividly against the background. Sometimes produces a silhouette effect.
Placement of colors, light and dark masses, or large and small objects in a picture to create harmony and equilibrium.
When unsure of the correct exposure.
(high, medium, or low; and left, right, or straight on) with respect to the subject, each giving a different viewpoint or effect.
Can be placed in and removed from the camera in daylight.
Hpypo is the fixing bath of sodium thiosulfate, other chemicals, and water
Placed in front of a camera lens
Reduces the amount of light reflected by the surface of the lens.
Color films are made to be exposed by light of a certain color quality such as daylight or tungsten. Color balance also refers to the reproduction of colors in color prints, which can be altered during the printing process.
Known as chrominance signal-to-noise ratio. Poor chroma signal-to-noise ratios are evidenced in color fringing on edges of objects and what appears to be thousands of moving dots in large areas of highly saturated colors (especially red).
Scratches and blemishes in the negative are emphasized.
A contact printer consists of a light tight box with an internal light source and a printing frame to position the negative against the photographic paper in front of the light.
Images in the print will be the same size as those in the negative.
In black-and-white photography, high contrast conveys a sense of hardness and is characteristic of strength and power. Low contrast conveys a sense of softness and is characteristic of gentleness and mildness.
Cropping is usually for a more pleasing composition.
Determines the amount of light that will pass through it or reflect from it. Sometimes referred to as contrast.
Depth of field depends on the lens opening, the focal length of the lens, and the distance from the lens to the subject
Or on photographic papers.
Emulsion is triggered by light to create a chemical reaction resulting in a photographic image.
In contact printing and enlarging, the emulsion side of the film-dull side-should face the emulsion side of the photo paper-shiny side.
Strictly speaking, existing light covers all natural lighting from moonlight to sunshine. For photographic purposes, existing light is the light that is already on the scene or project and includes room lamps, fluorescent lamps, spotlights, neon signs, candles, daylight through windows, outdoor scenes at twilight or in moonlight, and scenes artificially illuminated after dark.
Used as an aid for selecting the exposure setting. The same as a light meter.
Used to soften or fill in shadows or dark picture areas caused by the brighter main light. Called fill-in flash when electronic flash is used.
Indicated by a number such as ISO 200. The higher the number, the more sensitive or faster the film. Note: ISO stands for International Standards Organization.
Reasons to use a filter might be to emphasize, eliminate, or change the color or density of the entire scene or certain areas within a scene.
Also known as viewfinder and projected frame.
A lens that has been focused in a fixed position by the manufacturer. The user does not have to adjust the focus of this lens.
The result is a black-and-white negative or print unalterable by further action of light. Also referred to as hypo.
Usually used where the lighting on the scene is inadequate for picture-taking.
The range in density in a negative or print is too short.
The common f-numbers are f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, and f/22. The larger the f-number, the smaller the lens opening. In this series. Also called f-stops, they work in conjunction with shutter speeds to indicate exposure settings.
The focal length of the lens on most adjustable cameras is marked in millimeters on the lens mount.
Fogging can be caused by: exposure to nonimage-forming light to which the photographic material is sensitive or too much handling in air during development or, over-development, outdated film or paper, or storage of film or paper in a hot, humid place.
Also, tree branches, arches, etc., that frames a subject in an image.
Graininess becomes more pronounced with faster film and the degree of enlargement.
It has an electrical contact that aligns with the contact on the flash unit's "foot" and fires the flash when you press the shutter release. This direct flash-to-camera contact eliminates the need for a PC cord.
Often used as a synonym for fixing bath.
Determined by the standards of the International Standards Organization. In these standards, both arithmetic (ASA) and logarithmic (DIN) speed values are expressed in a single ISO term. For example, a film with a speed of ISO 100/21° would have a speed of ASA 100 or 21 DIN.
The light changes the photosensitive salts to varying degrees depending on the amount of light striking them. When processed, this latent image will become a visible image either in reversed tones (as in a negative) or in positive tones (as in a color slide).
Shows such information as remaining exposures, flash status and aspect ratio selected.
on the film, paper, or projection screen.
May be attached or detachable, and should be sized to the particular lens to avoid vignetting.
The viewfinder and picture-taking lens are separate.
A fast lens transmits more light and has a larger opening than a slow lens.
Often to a reproduction ratio of 1:2 (half life-size) or 1:1 (life-size).
Popular for action-sequence photography and for recording images by remote control.
A normal lens has a shorter focal length and a wider field of view than a telephoto lens, and a longer focal length and narrower field of view than a wide-angle lens.
This produces a dense negative or a very light print or slide.
If panning while focused on a moving subject, it remains sharp while the background shows motion blur
This is caused by the separation between the viewfinder and the picture-taking lens. There is no parallax with single-lens-reflex cameras because when you look through the viewfinder, you are viewing the subject through the picture-taking lens.
When placed on a camera lens or on light sources, it can eliminate undesirable reflections from a subject such as water, glass, or other objects with shiny surfaces. This filter also darkens blue sky.
The opposite of a negative. For example, a finished print or a slide.
Either a negative image or a positive image.
For proper exposure. On an automatic or autofocus camera
Usually caused by wide temperature or chemical-activity differences between the solutions.
An attribute of perceived color. Saturated colors are called vivid, strong, or deep. Desaturated colors are called dull, weak, or washed out.
Usually this is used to isolate a subject by causing most other elements in the scene to be blurred.
A set of blades, a curtain or a plate
When using shutter priority the aperture auto-adjusts for the desired exposure.
Side lighting can produce shadows and highlights to create mood in the image.
Usually, simple cameras have only one size of lens opening and one or two shutter speeds and do not require focusing by the picture-taker.
Usually caused by contaminated developing solutions or by insufficient fixing, washing, or agitation.
It stops development and makes the hypo (fixing bath) last longer. Usually a weak solution of acetic acid - used as a second step
For example, from f/8 to f/11.
At the same camera-to-subject distance. A telephoto lens has a longer focal length and narrower field of view than a normal lens.
A thin negative appears less dense than a normal negative.
Through-the-lens viewing, as in a single-lens-reflex (SLR) camera, while focusing and composing a picture, eliminates parallax.
Varying from white to buff.
Also referred to as value. Cold tones (bluish) and warm tones (reddish) refer to the color of the image in both black-and-white and color photographs.
Solutions called toners are used to produce various shades of colors.
Viewed or projected by transmitted light (light shining through film).
Especially useful when using slow shutter speeds and/or telephoto lenses.
Producing a thin negative, a dark slide, or a muddy-looking print.
Can be caused by poor lens design, using a lens hood not matched to the lens, or attaching too many filters to the front of the lens.
Includes more subject area
In effect, this gives you lenses of many focal lengths.
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