Significant 20th C. Events
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In physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace
August 9. king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British dominions and emperor of India
From Poldhu Wireless Station in Cornwall, England to Signal Hill in St John's, Newfoundland
Born 24th May 1819, assumed the throne on the 20th June 1837 & died 22nd January 1901. The longest reign of any British monarch.
Won by the Boston Americans
In heavier-than-air plane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
Louis Rigolly of France July 21, 1904, driving a Gobron Brillié which was powered by a 13,600 cc engine developing a now lowly 130 bhp.
Proposed in the article "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" published in the "Annalen der Physik" scientific journal.
Struck at 5:12 A.M. on Wednesday, April 18, 1906 and had a magnitude in excess of 7.7. The earthquake and resulting fire is still one of the worst natural disasters in US history.
By royal charter in the British Commonwealth
First African-American to hold title
Auto race won by Ray Harroun
Roald Amundsen and his party reached the pole on December 14th, 1911. He beat his doomed competitor Robert Falcon Scott by a month.
Barbara Joyce Dainton and Elizabeth Gladys Dean are the last two living survivors, although they were both too young at the time to remember the disaster.
Once probably the most common bird in the world, Martha, the last remaining Passenger Pigeon, died in the Cincinnati Zoo on September 1st 1914
It is generally accepted that the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on June 28th 1914 was the main catalyst in starting World War I.
Ernest Shackleton and his crew escape
Although the revolution occurred in 1917, Csar Nicholas II and his family were not executed until the following July.
Although generally accepted to have ended on November 11, 1918, it did not officially end until the Treaty of Versailles was signed the following year.
Mexican revolutionary leader
Alcock and Brown set off from Lester's Field, St John's, Newfoundland on June 14th 1919 and crash landed near Clifden, Connemara, Ireland on June 15th 1919
Signed on June 28, 1919 this was the official end of World War I, and ironically many view this treaty as contributing to the rise of the Nazi party and ultimately a cause of World War II
Eight Chicago White Sox players charged with fixing the 1919 World Series
Began on January 16, 1920, when the 18th amendment to the US constitution came into effect.
By Lord Carnavon and Howard Carter
It ran from January 22, 1924 until November 3rd 1924, with Ramsey MacDonald as Prime Minister, following the previous December's election.
Bolshevic leader, Jan. 21
Opened on October 6, 1927, and when Al Jolson uttered, "Wait a minute, wait a minute, you ain't heard nothin' yet", cinema was never the same again.
Charles Lindbergh made his historic flight May 20th/21st 1927 and claimed the $25,000 Orteig prize in the process.
Held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel on May 16, 1929, honouring the year 1928, with "Wings" being named Best Picture.
Interestingly, the Wall Street Crash of 1929 may have been as much an effect of, rather than a cause of, the great depression. Opinion is divided.
American civil rights leader, Jan. 15
It started on "Black Tuesday" October 29, 1929, and its severity, alongside the great depression, meant that the market did not reach its pre-crash levels until 1955.
Planned to compensate for football's exclusion from the 1932 Olympics, it was won by the host nation Uruguay when they beat Argentine 4-2.
With the burning of the Reichstag building on February 27, 1933 and the subsequent political reaction, the Nazi seizure of power (Gleichschaltung) was complete.
Officially ended on December 5, 1933 with the ratifying of the 21st amendment and the repealing of the 18th amendment of the US constitution.
Bank robbers, Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow, were killed in a police ambush, May 23
U.S. bank robber and named as the first Public Enemy Number One. Put his hand in acid to erase his fingerprints - they came back.
Physicist and Nobel Prize winner, July 4
Nazi's deprive German Jews of citizenship
This is credited to Wallace Carothers, who was the leader of organic chemistry at Du Pont. He committed suicide by ingesting cyanide two years later.
Following the death of George V and the abdication of Edward VIII, George VI assumed the throne on December 11th 1936.
The year previously he set four world records in 45 minutes. Not bad for a smoker!
The "people's car". Founded by Ferdinand Porsche
The bridge was opened to pedestrians on May 27, 1937 and to vehicles the following day. The bridge is painted "International Orange" to aid visibility in fog.
LZ 129 Hindenburg was destroyed by fire on May 6, 1937 at Lakehurst Naval Air Station. Surprisingly, of the 97 crewmembers and passengers, 62 survived.
First animated film in Technicolor.
Panics the country when people think it is for real, Oct 30
France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany on September 3, 1939, following the German (surprisingly with Russian agreement) invasion of Poland.
By the British navy, May 26
On December 7, 1941 the 1st Air Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy launched a surprise attack on the Pacific Fleet of the US Navy moored at Pearl Harbor. This brought about the US entry into World War II. While The Japanese attack made mincemeat out of "Battleship Row," the entire U.S. Carrier force was out to sea and was not touched, a fact which would come back to haunt the Japanese later in the war.
The battle lasted from 17 July 1942 - 2 February 1943
Prelude to the invasion of Germany
Extent of the Holocaust atrocities is revealed, April 11
Formed following World War II to replace the League of Nations. It had an initial membership of 51 states, which has now risen to 192.
German High Command surrendered on May 7, 1945 and the Japanese surrendered on August 14th 1945. V-J Day is known as "Shusen-kinenbi" in Japan, which means "Memorial day for the end of the war".
Charles Elwood "Chuck" Yeager officially broke the sound barrier in level flight on October 14, 1947 flying the Bell X-1.
Declared on August 15, 1947, following mass campaigns of civil disobedience largely led by Mahatma Ghandi. This also created Pakistan.
April 1; broke the Soviet blockade of Berlin
First Prime Minister - David Ben-Gurion.
Stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Based in Brussels, Belgium.
Begins three years of war
Stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. First accurate model done by Crick and Watson.
By New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay. Only photos on the summit are of Norgay - he didn't know how to use a camera.
Russian leader born Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili.
In the USSR. Later gave employment to Homer J Simpson.
At the Iffley Road track in Oxford, by Roger Bannister. The record lasted for just 46 days before being beaten by Australian John Landy. Bannister went on to become a neurologist.
Time magazine's 'Man of the Century'. Had an unusually large head. Turned down the chance to become President of Israel.
Turning point in the U.S. Civil Rights movement when a black woman wouldn't move to a designated seat on the bus in Montgomery Alabama. She was fined ten dollars for her defiance.
Eastern European response to NATO. Finally finished in 1991.
The uprising was crushed by the Soviets
The Russian satellite Sputnik 1. The Americans launched one four months later.
D.H. Lawrence. After a 30 year ban on its publication in the United Kingdom. It was published privately in Italy, France and Australia in the late 1920s.
Originally made as The Flagstones, in the early 1960s the characters were used to advertise cigarettes.
Yuri Gagarin went into orbit for less than two hours in Vostok 1. Later died in a military plane crash.
Nazi War criminal. In Israel, May 31
Standoff over Soviet bases in Cuba. Known as the Caribbean Crisis in Russia.
Valentina Tereshkova. Married another cosmonaut.
First Roman Catholic President of the U.S.A. was allegedly shot by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas. Oswald was shot two days later by Jack Ruby.
The last person sentenced to death in England was David Chapman who was sentenced to hang in November 1965 for the capital murder of swimming pool night watchman in Scarborough. He was released from prison in 1979 and later died in a car accident.
Alexsei Leonov spent 12 minutes outside Voskhod 2. Has appeared on stamps in Togo, Mongolia and Niger.
Malcolm X was assinated by members of the Nation of Islam after he left the organization. One of the convicted killers, Muhammad Abdul Aziz, was paroled in 1985 and is now head of the Nation of Islam's Harlem Mosque in New York.
Christian Barnard performed the first successful operation on Louis Washkansky.
Between Israel and its Arab neighbors
By Jim Hines at the Mexico Olympics, where he was probably helped by the altitude.
American civil rights leader, shot allegedly by James Earl Ray.
Period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia and the subsequent Soviet crackdown
Launched Jan 31; changes the course of the war, despite the Viets losing heavily USA discovered their government lied. Isn't that what governments do ?
By Francis Chichester, who was knighted by the Queen with Francis Drake's old sword.
The first man down the steps of the Eagle Lander was Neil Armstrong. Ten years later he saw stars when his ring finger was ripped off in an accident.
Hippie festival in upstate New York. Mud, drugs, smelly people, The Who and Jimi Hendrix.
Eleven Israeli athletes die in Munich
Spanish painter and sculptor, known for his Blue Period. Like the Queen.
Proved unworkable during the Vietnam War with widespread draft dodging.
Egypt and Syria against Israel
The last American citizens were helicoptered out from U.S. embassy as the North Vietnamese tanks rolled into Saigon.
Found dead on the bathroom floor, starting rumours he died while on the toilet.
Stocks of the disease still exist under guard in the U.S. and Russia. Stalin had survived an attack of it in his early life.
Louise Joy Brown (born July 25, 1978, in Oldham, Greater Manchester, England) was the world's first baby to be conceived by in-vitro fertilisation, or IVF. She gave birth on 21 December 2006 to a baby boy. He was conceived naturally
After only 33 days; the most recent Year of Three Popes
First woman Prime Minister of the U.K.
Nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA. No one died in the "disaster"
Shot by Mark Chapman at the Dakota building
Between Great Britain and Argentina
Status Quo, first band to play.
Space shuttle Challenger with seven crewmen explodes, Jan 28
Jailed for rape of Miss Black Rhode Island Desiree Washington. A former world heavyweight champion, he's a keen pigeon fancier.
Nelson Mandela was released after 21 years of being in jail and together with President FW de Klerk brought an end to apartheid.
Lived for six years. Named after Dolly Parton. First mammal to be cloned from an adult cell - it happened to be a mammary cell.
Currency for EU countries bar Denmark and the UK. Coins have a common and a national side, but no national side on notes.
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