Volcanic Features Around the World
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These are volcanic features which are of significant interest ie are the largest or have been very destructive. It includes features which have been historically significant and those that have been active in recent times.
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Four hikers lost their lives when they fell into a summit crater on Adatara Volcano in Japan. They probably died due to inhalation of H2S in the bottom of the crater. Public warnings were given to stay away from the volcano, as activity has increased there over the past few years.
Alid has been very important geographically. Before Alid was uplifted, the Red Sea covered part of Afar. After the Alid activity the sea could not enter Afar and gradually the water there evaporated, leaving behind vast plains of white salts.
A very active volcano with 48 eruptions since 1774, Ambrym is the most voluminous active volcano in Vanuatu.
Ararat is the largest and highest (16,940 feet, 5,165 m) volcano in Turkey. The volcano is thought to be the resting place of Noah's ark.
Arenal's most recent eruptive period began on July 29, 1968 at 7:20 AM when "Cerro" Arenal--as it was called by local residents explosively blew the west side off the volcano. Two villages at the foot of the volcano-- Pueblo Nuevo and Tabacon were completely destroyed and 78 people died.
Asama, Honshu's most active volcano. Asama has erupted 121 times. The last eruption of Asama was in 2003. A temple sits astride the Onioshidashi lava flow on the north flank of Asama volcano
Aso volcano has produced more explosive eruptions than any other volcano in the world. Has erupted 167 times. The most recent eruption ended in 1993. Only 8 eruptions have caused fatalities. Most fatalities are tourists on the rim of the cone
Alaska. Debris avalanches that reach the inlet have the potential to generate tsunami. A tsunami was generated during the 1883 eruption that had a height of 30 feet (9 m) at Port Graham. Historic eruptions were recorded in 1812, 1883, 1935, 1963-64, 1976, and 1986. Augustine's eruptions tend to be highly explosive and tend to spread ash across the Cook Inlet region.
Avachinsky is one of the most active stratovolcanoes on the Kamchatka peninsula. Avachinsky has erupted at least 16 times since 1737. A large explosive eruption occurred at Avachinsky in 1945. The most recent eruption was in 1991 and produced lava flows, a dome, and mudflows
All eight of the historic eruptions have been at the Issaikyo vent. Unconfirmed historic eruptions were reported for 1331 and 1711. The first confirmed historic eruption was in 1889. Two geologists were killed at Azuma by falling stones. The most recent eruption was in 1977. It was small and lasted less than one day
Bandai has erupted four times between 806 and 1888. The 1888 eruption which was large, It included a debris avalanche that buried several villages. Although the eruption lasted only one day it killed at least 461 people.
The 1050 A.D. eruption was one of the largest known eruptions in the last 10,000 years. It had a volcanic explosivity index of 7. About 150 cubic km of pumice was erupted (for comparison, the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens erupted 1 cubic km of ash).
There have been at least five moderate sized explosive eruptions at Barren Island since 1787. The eruption in 1991 lasted six months and caused some damage.
South Dakota. Bear Butte is made of magma that never reached the surface to generate an eruption. The magma intruded to a shallow level and then stopped, cooled, crystallized, and solidified.
The northern-most active sub-aerial volcano on Earth, Beerenberg has erupted six times between 1732 and 1985.
On October 22, the volcano began to erupt, throwing ash 3-5 miles (5-8 km) into the air. On March 30 a tremendous explosion destroyed the top of the mountain, lowering the height of the summit some 600 feet and forming a crater roughly a mile across. A great Vulcanian cloud was projected obliquely upward reaching a height of 24 miles. At a distance of 15 miles, trees a foot in diameter were felled by the force of the blast. Six to eight miles east of the crater the ground was covered with sandy ash 1.5 feet thick, and 11 miles away the valley of the river was completely filled with deposits from the glowing avalanche. The avalanche gave rise to mudflows that continued down the valley.
The lake is speculated to be at least 50 m deep. Local inhabitants maintain that a stone thrown into the lake would be hurled back by the devil.
New Mexico. The Carrizozo flow is 68 km long, one of the longest lava flows on Earth. It covers an area of 328 square km and has a volume of 4.2 cubic km. The Carrizozo flow originated from three cinder cones at the north end of the flow. The unweathered character of this flow suggests it is only 1,000 to 1,500 years old.
One of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutians. While a small number of soldiers were stationed on the island, one was killed during an eruption in June of 1944. A brief eruption in May of 1994 sent ash to 10.5 km.
The most active volcano in Mexico. Early March 1991, avalanches of ash and gas from the summit were followed soon after by lava flows and more ash and steam from the caldera.
Oregon. About 6,850 years ago Mount Mazama, Strata volcano, collapsed to produce Crater Lake, one of the world's best known calderas. The catastrophic pyroclastic eruption released about 12 cubic miles (50 cubic km) of magma to the surface. It was one of the largest eruptions in the last 10,000 years.
The peak of the Dendi volcano is Mt. Boti, and Lake Dendi lies 118 meters below this point.
Hawaii. Probably the most famous landmark in Hawaii is Diamond Head. Early sailors mistakenly thought glistening calcite crystals inside the tuff rocks were diamonds, leading to the incorrect name.
There are at least 19 craters near the top of the volcano with the largest being roughly 100 x 50 m. Eruptions are suspected in 1863 and 1900 but not confirmed.
Between 1920 and 1988, five historical eruptions have been confirmed and six more are suspected.
Egmont began forming about 70,000 years ago. It has erupted at least eight times in the last 6,000 years. Most of these eruptions have been explosive and from the central vent.
The 1973 eruption on the Icelandic island of Heimaey is a classic example of the struggle between man and volcanoes. With a heroic effort the people of Iceland saved the town of Vestmannaeyjar and the country's most important fishing port.
The eruption at Eldgja in ~935 AD lasted 3-8 years and produced 19.6 cubic km of lava, making it the largest lava eruption in history.
Erta Ale is a remote and rarely visited volcano that is known currently to have an active lava lake in its summit crater. Erta Ale has undergone seven eruption events in the past 125 years and has been erupting continuously since 1967.
Etna is one of the largest continental volcanoes. Its beauty, frequent eruptions, and long record of eruptions make it one of the world's best known volcanoes.
Fogo has erupted ten times between 1500 and 1995. 9,279 feet (2,829 m).
1,735 feet (529 m) Fuerteventura has erupted in the last 10,000 years (Holocene time) but no historic eruptions have been recorded.
The only historic eruption of Furnas was in 1630 and lasted about a week. 2,640 feet (805 m).
Is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. Galeras has erupted more than 20 times since the 1500s. Volcanic activity has been frequent in the last five years, including an eruption in January 1993 that killed nine people on a scientific expedition to the volcano summit.
Alaska. A spectacular eruption in 1929 produced 12 craters along a 2.5 mile (4 km) long fissure that extended from the summit to the ocean.
The volcanoes were active 25-27 million years ago.
Graciosa is famous for a large cave nearly 600 feet (200 m) wide near the bottom of the caldera. There is a lake within the cave.
Alaska. Great Sitkin is suspected of erupting in 1760. Since then, it may have erupted as many as 12 times. The last known eruption was in 1974.
Guallatir is a stratovolcano in northern Chile. Guallatir has erupted at least four times since 1825. The most recent eruption was in 1985.
Heard is an active stratovolcano in the south Indian Ocean. Heard has erupted at least eight times since 1910.
Has had a single historic eruption from the Volcan de Lomo Negro vent in 1793. The eruption lasted about one month and produced 4,920 feet (1,500 m) lava flows.
Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica. There have been at least 23 eruptions since 1723. The most recent was from 1963 to 1965. It sent tephra and secondary mudflows into cultivated areas, caused at least 40 deaths, and destroyed 400 houses and some factories.
Iwo-jima (the name means "Sulfur Island") is a submarine caldera, Iwo-jima has at least ten historic eruptions, all in this century. The most recent eruption was in 1982. All of the eruptions are non-explosive or small and most are phreatic, caused by the interaction of water and magma. There has more then 10 m of uplift on the island since 1952
Karisimbi is the highest of the eight major volcanoes of the Virunga field, a western branch of the East African rift valley.
The Karthala Volcano is notoriously active, having erupted more than 20 times since the 19th century.
Karymsky's latest activity occurred from 1970 to 1973 and then again in 1976. Evidence of its activity is represented by a fresh lava stream that fills the bottom of the northern half of its caldera and smaller lava streams located on Karymsky's northern and south eastern slopes.
This volcanic field consists of over seventy-eight explosion craters that cover an area of around eighty square miles.
One of the giants of volcanos at 19,335.6 ft (5,895m) Has not been active in modern times, but steam and sulphur are still emitted. At the top of Kibo's summit is a 1 1/2 mile (2.25 km) wide crater.
Kinrara erupted in the last 20,000 years, making it the youngest volcano in the region.
Kirishima is a shield volcano made from 20 different eruptive centers. Kirishima has erupted at least 67 times since 742 AD. The most recent eruption was in 1992. Lava has not been observed at any eruption of Kirishima in historic time. Five eruptions have caused fatalities.
Kliuchevskoi is one of the most active volcanoes of the Kamchatka Peninsula in Far Eastern Russia. The volcano has had more than 80 eruptions since 1697. On September 15, 1994, gas and ash shot out of the crater, creating a column 2 km high. Over the next two weeks the eruption continued, and on 1 October a giant eruption occurred. A cloud of ash rose 15-20 km above the volcano
Kos has solfatara fields and hot springs.
Erupted in 1883 causing and explosion heard 3000 miles away
Erupted between 1914-1917, causing no deaths
According to local legends Longonot erupted in the 1860's. 2,776 m.
Lord Howe Island is the erosional remnant of a 6.9 million-year old shield volcano.
Is the largest of the western Canary Islands. La Palma has had seven historic eruptions, the most recent in 1971. 7,957 feet (2,426 m)
It has not erupted in historic times. 5599 ft (1701 m).
Hawaii. Mauna Kea is the tallest volcano on the Island of Hawaii. It is also the second largest volcano on the island. It began erupting on the sea floor about 800,000 years ago.
Hawaii. Mauna Loa is the largest volcano on Earth with an estimated volume of 9,600 cubic miles (40,000 cubic kilometres). It makes half of the area of the Island of Hawaii. It is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth, erupting 15 times since 1900. The last eruption was in 1984 and sent lava within 4 miles (6.5 km) of Hilo.
Me-Akan has erupted at least 15 times since about 1800. Eruptions prior to 1955 were weak. The most recent eruption was in 1988
Menengai has obviously erupted many times but only one eruption has been dated at about only 7,350 years ago.
Its history has been quite explosive. It has had four eruptions, the last of which occurred in 1910. Lava erupted from Meru varies from thin flows to thick intusive domes.
The submarine volcano at Monaco Bank has erupted in 1907 and 1911.
Washington. Most of the summit of the volcano is covered by glaciers. Because of this, the Indians gave Mt. Baker a name meaning "White Steep Mountain".
Mount Bird was active between 3.8 and 4.6 million years ago.
13,428 ft (4095 m) also known locally as Mount Faka. It is one of Cameroon's main tourist attractions. Has erupted six times this century, most recently in the spring of 1999.
Mount Discovery formed about 5.3 million years ago. The youngest vents are 1.8 million years old.
Erebus is an active volcano with a convecting lava lake within a summit crater. It has been continuously active since 1972.
Mount Fox is a 560,000 year old pyroclastic cone. Mount Fox lies on basalt lava flows that are 23.6 million years old.
Fuji has erupted at least 16 times since 781 AD. Most of these eruptions were moderate to moderate-large in size. The most recent eruption was in 1707-1708 from a vent on the southeast side of the cone. The eruption ejected 0.8 cubic km of ash, blocks, and bombs. Five historic eruptions have caused damage, including the 1707-1708 eruption, but no fatalities.
Mount Gambier, a volcanic complex of maar volcanoes, formed about 4,900 years ago making it the youngest group of volcanoes on the continent of Australia.
Oregon. Is the tallest mountain in Oregon (11,237 feet, 3,426 m) and popular with skiers, hikers, and climbers.
It erupted about 5,290 BC.
Erupted in 1902, it smothered the town of Saint-Pierre in deadly gas and hot ash, wiping out most of the inhabitants
Erupted 1991, rumbled for days before erupting, ash was more than 6ft deep in a 2 mile radius
Washington. Mount Rainier is potentially the most dangerous volcano in the Cascades because it is very steep, covered in large amounts of ice and snow, and near a large population that lives in lowland drainages.
An active stratovolcano at the southern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone. The North Island's major skifields. Ruapehu is one of the world's most active volcanoes and the largest active volcano in New Zealand. It is the highest point in the North Island and includes three major peaks: Tahurangi (2,797 m), Te Heuheu (2,755 m) and Paretetaitonga (2,751 m). The deep, active crater is between the peaks and fills with a crater lake between major eruptions.
Mount Schank is a volcanic cone formed by phreatomagmatic eruptions. Mount Schank erupted about 5,000 years ago making it one of the youngest volcanoes in Australia.
Last known eruption in 1786
Erupted in 1783, devastating farming and fishing, causing famine that killed a fifth of the country's people
Washington. When Mount St. Helens erupted on 18 May 1980, the top 1,300 ft. disappeared within minutes. The blast area covered an area of more than 150 sq. miles and sent thousands of tons of ash into the upper atmosphere.
Erupted in 1815, whirlwinds and tsunamis from eruption killed 12,000 people
Alaska. Wrangell has erupted five times. The last eruption was in 1902. Volcanic heat transfer from Wrangell has been increasing since the Great Alaskan Earthquake of 1964. This could cause serious problems for the area if an eruption occurs. Mt. Wrangell has more snow and ice in its caldera than any other active volcano in the world. If the volcano erupted, it would melt the ice causing dangerous flooding and mudslides.
Many of the volcanic features in the complex are protected as part of mount Ediziza Provincial Park, one of the larger provincial parks in British Columbia.
Utah, New Mexico, Colorado & Arizona. The Navajo volcanic field covers about 20,000 square km in the four-corners area of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Utah. It is made of dozens on intrusions, diatremes, tuff pipes, and dikes. These volcanoes erupted from about 30 to 25 million years ago.
On November 13, 1985. More than 23,000 people were killed in Armero when lahars (volcanic debris flows) swept down from the erupting Nevado del Ruiz volcano. When the volcano became restless in 1984, no team of volcanologists existed that could rush to the scene of such an emergency.
Oregon. Newberry volcano is about 20 miles (30 km) southeast of Bend and is one of the largest volcanoes in the Cascades.
Ngauruhoe is New Zealand's most active volcano with 61 eruptions since 1839.
California. Spirelike rock formations 500 to 1,200 feet high, with caves and a variety of volcanic features, rise above the smooth contours of the surrounding countryside. These rocks are remains of an ancient volcano.
It is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. Piton de la Fournaise has erupted at least 153 times since 1640.
Most northerly active volcano. Last erupted in 1964 from vents close to Green Lake. A seismic crisis in 1994 did not culminate in an eruption.
Alaska. The most recent eruptions, in 1989-1990, were the fourth and most damaging eruption last century. The eruptions caused considerable disruption to air traffic. Debris flows in Drift River valley threatened an oil tanker terminal. Damage and loss of revenue from ash and debris flows totalled about $160 million, making the 1989-1990 eruption the second most costly in the United States' history.
The eruption of Santorini in Greece in 1,650 B.C. was one of the largest in the last 10 000 years. The eruption probably caused the end of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete.
Arizona. San Francisco Mountain is the most prominent volcano in the San Francisco volcanic field. The volcanic field covers 1,935 square miles (5,000 square km).
California. Shasta has erupted on average once every 800 years. During the 3,500 years the volcano has erupted about once every 300 years. The most recent eruption may have occurred in 1786 A.D.
A stratovolcano on the island of Montserrat, began erupting on July 18, 1995. This is the first recorded eruption of this volcano in historic time. Pyroclastic flows from Montserrat dome collapses have flowed down the White River creating a new delta where they entered the sea. It is uncertain if this delta will survive or be eroded by seawaves.
A volcanic massif in the North Island of New Zealand. It is located 20 kilometres to the southwest of Lake Taupo, and is the northernmost of the three active volcanoes that dominate the landscape of the central North Island.
Lava flows near the end of the Toomba lava flow. The flow is nearly 75 miles (120 km) long, making it one of the longest known lava flows on Earth.
The volcano has a 300-m-wide summit crater. The only historical eruption of the volcano occurred in 1961. This eruption took place along the north shore and forced the evacuation of the island's inhabitants.
Undara is also famous for its spectacular caves.
From 1983-1985 an area of 31 square miles (80 square kilometers) was uplifted, in places up to 5.9 feet (1.8 meters), damaging homes, the harbour, and the tourist industry. Ultimately 36,000 people were relocated.
Mudfows, associated with eruptions, killed a total of at least 73 people in 1949, 1963, 1964, and 1971. The mudflows of 1971 were caused by lava flows that melted ice. Many homes and agricultural installations were destroyed in the Chaillupen and Turbio Valleys. Concrete bridges across major bridges were also cut. About 350 people were killed in Villarrica village by a tectonic earthquake in 1575.
White Island is the northernmost active volcano in the Taupo Volcanic Zone - a 250km-long zone of intense volcanism that marks the boundary of the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates.
Wyoming. The geysers, hot springs, and bubbling mud pots of Yellowstone National Park indicate there is extra heat beneath this corner of Wyoming. Geologists and vulcanologists think the heat is from a hot spot beneath Yellowstone
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