Sobriquets - English Monarchs
What was a sobriquet of the English monarch x?
Which English monarch was known by the sobriquet y?
was known as
Description: Most English monarchs were given sobriquets (nicknames) or cognomens. Sobriquets usually refer to their physical attributes or deeds eg 'Avenger of Merchants' and 'Good Queen Bess'. An Epitheton necesseria, aka cognomen, is a description, or phrase added to the end of a name to distinguish one person from another with a similar name e.g. 'Edward of Rouen'.
Æthelred II -- The Unræd -- Æþelræd Unræd is a pun meaning "Noble counsel, No counsel". His first name means Noble counsel. Unræd is usually translated as 'The Unready', but this is incorrect. Ræd in unræd means 'counsel'. His nickname is therefore "ill-advised", seemingly describing the poor quality of advice he received. The nickname was first recorded more than 150 years after his death.
Athelstan -- The Glorious -- A poem 'Carta Dirige Gressus' written circa 927 has been translated as saying "King Athelstan lives glorious through his deeds!"
Canute -- The Great -- Knut Sveinsson. Also known as 'the Dane' and 'the Rich'. Canute was praised in Norse poetry as a formidable Viking warrior.
Eadwig -- All-Fair -- Also known as Edwy of England and Eadwi the Fair. Called "All-Fair" by the common people for his great beauty.
Edgar -- The Peaceable -- His nickname, 'the Peaceable, was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader. However his reign was peaceful and prosperous.
Edmund I -- The Magnificent -- He was so much so considered a hero by writers of his and later times. Florence of Worcester describes him as "Edmundus magnificus", perhaps translating the Saxon epithet Edmund, the "deed-doer"
Edmund II -- Ironside -- Called "Ironside" for his efforts to fend off the Danish invasion led by King Canute
Edward -- The Martyr -- Edward was killed by servants of his stepmother. He became known as "the Martyr" because of his violent end, the fact that the party opposed to him had been irreligious, & the fact that he had always acted as a defender of the Church. Edward was canonised. Saints were categorised as either martyrs (killed for their faith) or confessors (died natural deaths).
Edward -- The Confessor -- At the time of Edward's canonisation, Saints were categorised as either martyrs (killed for their faith) or confessors (died natural deaths). Edward was accordingly styled Edward the Confessor, partly to distinguish him from his canonised predecessor Edward the Martyr.
Edward I -- Longshanks -- He was 6 feet 2 inches (188 cm) tall hence the nickname 'Longshanks' meaning Long legs. Aka the 'Hammer of the Scots' (this is on his tomb) & 'Scotland's Scourge' for his battles against the Scots. Known as the 'English Justinian' & 'the Father of the Mother of Parliaments' for his reforms.Also 'the Father of the Longbow' & 'the Warrior King' for his battle exploits.
Edward I -- Hammer of the Scots -- This is on his tomb & 'Scotland's Scourge' for his battles against the Scots. Aka the 'English Justinian' & 'the Father of the Mother of Parliaments' for his reforms. Also 'Longshanks' for his height, 'the Father of the Longbow' & 'the Warrior King' for his battle exploits.
Edward II -- Edward of Carnarvon -- Edward II was born at Caernarfon Castle. He was the first English prince to hold the title Prince of Wales. King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. He was the seventh Plantagenet king
Edward III -- Avenger of Merchants -- Edward III styled himself ' the Avenger of Merchants ' on the gold coin struck to commemorate the defeat of the Spaniards on the sea
Edward III -- Edward the Bankrupt -- In 1340 Edward III caused two famous bankruptcies when he defaulted on personal loans.
Edward III -- King of the Sea -- During the first part of his reign he paid much attention to naval administration; he successfully asserted the maritime supremacy of the country, and was entitled by parliament the "king of the sea"
Edward IV -- Edward of Rouen -- He was born at Rouen in France. Edward holds the tragic accolade of being one of the few male members of his dynasty to die of natural causes, most others were killed in battle.
Edward V -- The Prince in the Tower -- Edward was one of the Princes in the Tower, who disappeared after being sent (ostensibly for their own safety) to the Tower of London. Richard III has been widely blamed for their deaths, but what actually happened remains a mystery.
Edward V -- Edward of Sanctuary -- Edward was born in sanctuary within Westminster Abbey during a period when his mother, Elizabeth Woodville, was taking refuge from Lancastrians who had temporarily removed his father, King Edward IV of England, from power in the Wars of the Roses.
Edward VI -- The Boy King -- Became King of England and Ireland in1547 at the age of nine.
Elizabeth I -- Good Queen Bess -- Also known as: Astraea,Belphoebe, Gloriana, the Glory of Her Sex, the Great, the Maiden Queen, the Fairie Queene, the Peerless Oriana, the Queen of the Northern Seas , the Queen of Shepherds
Elizabeth I -- The Virgin Queen -- Elizabeth's unmarried status inspired a cult of virginity. In poetry and portraiture, she was depicted as a virgin or a goddess or both, not as a normal woman. in 1559, Elizabeth told the Commons, "And, in the end, this shall be for me sufficient, that a marble stone shall declare that a queen, having reigned such a time, lived and died a virgin"
Elizabeth I -- Gloriana -- Gloriana was the name given by the 16th century poet Edmund Spenser to his character representing Queen Elizabeth I in his poem The Faerie Queene. It became the popular name given to Elizabeth I. It is recorded that the troops at Tilbury hailed her with cries of "Gloriana, Gloriana, Gloriana", after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588.
Empress Matilda -- Maude -- As many of her contemporaries or near contemporaries were also called Matilda in Latin texts, she was sometimes called Maude to distinguish her from them. Later called Countess of Anjou and Lady of the English. Matilda was the first female ruler of the Kingdom of England. However the length of her effective rule was quite brief — a few months in 1141 — and she was never crowned. Because of this she is normally excluded from lists of English monarchs, and her rival Stephen of Blois is listed as monarch for the period 1135-1154.
George III -- Farmer George -- George III was dubbed "Farmer George" by satirists, at first mocking his interest in mundane matters rather than politics but later to contrast his homely thrift with his son's grandiosity and to portray him as a man of the people.
Harold I -- Harefoot -- Named "Harefoot" for his speed, and the skill of his huntsmanship.
Harold II -- Harold Godwinson -- Harold was a son of Godwin, the Earl of Wessex, and his wife Gytha Thorkelsdóttir
Henry I -- Henry Beauclerc -- Called Beauclerc for his scholarly interests - Beauclerc means fine or good scholar. Aka Henry the Scholar.
Henry I -- Lion of Justice -- For refinements which he brought about in the administrative and legislative machinery of the time.
Henry II -- Curtmantle -- "Curtmantle" is Old gael English for 'short coat'. Henry II was the first monarch whose coat was shorter than his predecessors. This prevented others from 'stepping on his coat tails'.
Henry II -- FitzEmpress -- FitzEmpress means son of the Empress. Henry was the son of Empress Matilda, daughter of King Henry I of England.
Henry III -- Henry of Winchester -- Henry was born at Winchester Castle
Henry IV -- Henry Bolingbroke -- Henry was born at Bolingbroke Castle
Henry V -- Henry of Monmouth -- Henry was born at Monmouth. In Shakespeare's play Henry the V, he is known as Prince Hal
Henry VI -- Henry of Windsor -- Henry was born at Windsor Castle
Henry VI -- The Boy King -- A sobriquet more often applied to Edward the VI. Henry ascended the throne on the death of his father when he was aged 8months and was crowned at age seven. Henry's one lasting achievement was his fostering of education; he founded both Eton College and King's College, Cambridge.
Henry VII -- The Huckster King -- Richard of York denounced Henry VII, the architect of the new "commercial spirit," as a "huckster" who makes "his subjects the victims of low-souled avarice". "Huckster" comes from the fact that Henry VII issued in a new era of dealing with the monarchy as a business. He was known to play diplomats as well as other monarchs against each other with the intent of England winning and benefiting each time.
"Henry VIII -- Bluff Hal -- On account of his bluff and
burly manners. Harry and Hal are forms of the name Henry. Also Bluff Harryand ""Bluff King Hal. "
Henry VIII -- Old Coppernose -- By 1544 Henry was running short of money, thanks partially to his own extravagant lifestyle and expenditure. Henry's solution was to lower the fineness of the third coinage (1544–47) to only 1/3 silver and 2/3 copper. This was understandably not popular with the people, and resulted in Henry acquiring the nickname "Old Coppernose" as the silver rubbed off the high-relief part of the coin design.
James I -- Scottish Jimmy -- King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England in 1603. He was the first monarch of the House of Stewart (or Stuart)
John -- Soft Sword -- Dubbed "Soft-sword" for his alleged military ineptitude.
John -- Lackland -- So-named for his lack of an inheritance as the youngest son and for his loss of territory to France
Mary I -- Bloody Mary -- She is remembered for restoring England to Roman Catholicism. In the process, she had almost 300 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian Persecutions, earning her the sobriquet of "Bloody Mary". Aka Mary the Catholic.
Richard I -- The Lionheart -- He was known as Cœur de Lion or, Richard the Lionheart, even before his accession, because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior.
Richard II -- Richard the Coxcomb -- A coxcomb is an empty-headed, vain person. Aka the Prince of Coxcombs and 'Le Mignon'
Richard III -- Richard the Protector -- After the death of his brother King Edward IV, Richard briefly took responsibility for the safety of Edward's son King Edward V, with the title of Lord Protector. He is alleged to have placed Edward and his brother Richard in the Tower and seized the throne for himself. It is also alleged that he arranged to have them murdered.
Richard III -- Crookback -- Richard was represented by Tudor writers as being physically deformed, which was regarded as evidence of an evil character. However, the withered arm, limp and crooked back of legend are nowadays believed to be fabrications
William I -- The conqueror -- Though his blood claim to the throne of England was slim, he set his sights on the land once governed by his cousin, Edward the Confessor, and claimed the old king had named him his heir. In 1066 he successfully invaded England and defeated Harold Godwinson to win the crown. Before his conquest of England, he was known as "William the Bastard" because of his illegitimacy.
William II -- William Rufus -- Rufus means red-haired.